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Abstract

Objective—To identify dietary factors associated with the increase in occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in occurrence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—173 cats with CaOx uroliths, 290 cats with MAP uroliths, and 827 cats without any urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Cats fed diets low in sodium or potassium or formulated to maximize urine acidity had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths but a decreased risk of developing MAP uroliths. Additionally, compared with the lowest contents, diets with the highest moisture or protein contents and with moderate magnesium, phosphorus, or calcium contents were associated with decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation. In contrast, diets with moderate fat or carbohydrate contents were associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Diets with the highest magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, or fiber contents and moderate protein content were associated with increased risk of MAP urolith formation. On the other hand, diets with the highest fat content were associated with decreased risk of MAP urolith formation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that diets formulated to contain higher protein, sodium, potassium, moisture, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium contents and with decreased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Diets formulated to contain higher fat content and lower protein and potassium contents and with increased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1228–1237)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To test the hypothesis that breed, sex, and age of cats, and anatomic location of uroliths are risk factors for calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Sample Population

Records of 3,498 feline urolith accessions submitted between September 1982 and September 1992.

Procedure

Mineral composition of feline uroliths was quantitatively analyzed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for breed, sex, age, and urolith location as risk factors for calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolith formation. The population at risk was defined as all cats for which that type of urolith had been submitted. The control population was all cats for which uroliths had been submitted, excluding cats with the type of urolith being evaluated.

Results

Burmese, Persian, and Himalayan breeds were at higher risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths, but at reduced risk for developing magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. Compared with females, neutered male cats had a higher risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths, but a reduced risk for developing magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. The risk for calcium oxalate urolith formation increased with age. One- to 2-year-old female cats had the highest risk for magnesium ammonium phosphate uroliths. Uroliths removed from the kidneys were more likely to be composed of calcium oxalate than of magnesium ammonium phosphate.

Clinical Implications

Breed, sex, and age of cats, and anatomic location of uroliths should be considered when evaluating risk of calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis in urolith-forming cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208:547–551)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To determine bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters for allopurinol and its active metabolite, oxypurinol.

Animals

6 healthy, reproductively intact female Beagles, 4.9 to 5.2 years old, and weighing 9.5 to 11.5 kg.

Procedure

In the first part of the study, allopurinol was administered IV at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight to 3 dogs and 5 mg/kg to 3 dogs; the sequence was then reversed. In the second part of the study, allopurinol was administered orally at a dosage of 15 mg/kg to 3 dogs and 7.5 mg/kg to 3 dogs; the sequence was then reversed. In the third part of the study, allopurinol was administered IV (10 mg/kg), orally (15 mg/kg) with food, and orally (15 mg/kg) without food. Plasma samples were obtained at timed intervals, and concentrations of allopurinol and oxypurinol were determined.

Results

Maximal plasma allopurinol concentration and area under plasma allopurinol and oxypurinol concentration-time curves were 2 times greater when dogs were given 10 mg of allopurinol/kg IV, compared with 5 mg/kg, and when dogs were given 15 mg of allopurinol/kg orally, compared with 7.5 mg/kg. Allopurinol elimination half-life, time to reach maximal plasma oxypurinol concentration, and oxypurinol elimination half-life were significantly greater when dogs received 10 mg of allopurinol/kg IV, compared with 5 mg/kg, and when dogs received 15 mg of allopurinol/kg orally, compared with 7.5 mg/kg.

Conclusions

Elimination of allopurinol is dependent on nonlinear enzyme kinetics. The bioavailability of allopurinol, and pharmacokinetic parameters of allopurinol and oxypurinol after oral administration of allopurinol, are not affected by administration with food.

Clinical Relevance

A dose threshold exists beyond which additional allopurinol would not substantially further inhibit xanthine oxidase activity. Oral administration of > 15 mg of allopurinol/kg to dogs would not be expected to result in greater reduction of plasma and urine uric acid concentrations. Also, allopurinol may be administered to dogs for dissolution or prevention of urate uroliths without regard to time of feeding. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:504–510)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research