Objective—To determine whether use of topical flea
and tick products increases the risk of transitional cell
carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder in Scottish
Animals—87 adult Scottish Terriers with TCC (cases)
and 83 adult Scottish Terriers with other health-related
Procedure—Owners of study dogs were recruited
through private veterinary practices and the Scottish
Terrier Club of America. History of exposure to flea
and tick products 1 year prior to diagnosis of TCC for
case dogs and during a comparable period for control
dogs was obtained through a questionnaire. Risk of
TCC associated with exposure to flea and tick products
was determined by means of univariate and multiple
logistic regression analysis.
Results—After adjustment for host factors, Scottish
Terriers treated with topical spot-on flea and tick products
containing fipronil or imidacloprid did not have an
increased risk of TCC, compared with Scottish Terriers
that had never been exposed to any flea and tick products.
The risk of TCC associated with use of older topical
flea and tick products such as shampoos, dips,
powders, sprays, and collars could not be evaluated
because of the low number of owners in the study
population that had used such products.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that use of topical spot-on flea and tick products
does not increase the risk of TCC in Scottish Terriers.
( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:389–394)
Objective—To evaluate the effects of vegetable consumption
and vitamin supplementation on the risk of
developing transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary
bladder in Scottish Terriers.
Animals—92 adult Scottish Terriers with TCC (cases)
and 83 Scottish Terriers with other conditions (controls).
Procedure—Owners of dogs with TCC completed a
questionnaire regarding their dogs' diet and intake of vitamin
supplements in the year prior to diagnosis of TCC;
owners of control dogs completed the questionnaire for
a comparable time period. The risk (odds ratio [OR]) of
developing TCC associated with diet and vitamin supplementation
was determined by use of logistic regression.
Results—After adjustment for age, weight, neuter status,
and coat color, there was an inverse association
between consumption of vegetables at least 3
times/wk (OR, 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15
to 0.62) and risk of developing TCC. For individual vegetable
types, the risk of developing TCC was inversely
associated with consumption of green leafy vegetables
(OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.97) and yellow-orange vegetables
(OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.70). Consumption
of cruciferous vegetables was not significantly associated
with a similar reduction in risk of developing TCC
(OR, 0.22; CI, 0.04 to 1.11). The power of the study to
detect a 50% reduction in TCC risk associated with daily
vitamin supplementation was considered low (25%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that consumption of certain vegetables may prevent
or slow the development of TCC in Scottish
Terriers. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:94–100)
Objective—To determine incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—3,587 ferrets that received a rabies or distemper vaccine between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003.
Procedures—Electronic medical records were searched for possible vaccine-associated adverse events. Adverse events were classified by attending veterinarians as nonspecific vaccine reactions, allergic reactions, or anaphylaxis. Patient information that was collected included age, weight, sex, cumulative number of distemper and rabies vaccinations received, clinical signs, and treatment. The association between potential risk factors and occurrence of an adverse event was estimated with logistic regression.
Results—30 adverse events were recorded. The adverse event incidence rates for administration of rabies vaccine alone, distemper vaccine alone, and rabies and distemper vaccines together were 0.51%, 1.00%, and 0.85%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different. All adverse events occurred immediately following vaccine administration and most commonly consisted of vomiting and diarrhea (52%) or vomiting alone (31%). Age, sex, and body weight were not significantly associated with occurrence
of adverse events, but adverse event incidence rate increased as the cumulative number of distemper or rabies vaccinations received increased. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the cumulative number of distemper vaccinations received was significantly associated with the occurrence of an adverse event.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in ferrets, the risk of vaccine-associated adverse events was primarily associated with an increase in the number of distemper vaccinations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:909–912)
Objective—To determine the incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 30 days of vaccination in cats and characterize risk factors for their occurrence.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—496,189 cats vaccinated at 329 hospitals.
Procedures—Electronic records were searched for VAAEs that occurred after vaccine administration classified by practitioners as nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, shock, or anaphylaxis. Clinical signs and treatments were reviewed. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE occurrence was estimated via multivariate logistic regression.
Results—2,560 VAAEs were associated with administration of 1,258,712 doses of vaccine to 496,189 cats (51.6 VAAEs/10,000 cats vaccinated). The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccines administered per office visit increased. Risk was greatest for cats approximately 1 year old; overall risk was greater for neutered versus sexually intact cats. Lethargy with or without fever was the most commonly diagnosed VAAE. No localized reactions recorded in the 30-day period were subsequently diagnosed as neoplasia when followed for 1 to 2 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall VAAE rates were low, young adult neutered cats that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at the greatest risk of a VAAE within 30 days after vaccination. Veterinarians should incorporate these findings into risk communications and limit the number of vaccinations administered concurrently to cats.
Objective—To estimate prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections in pet cats in the United States and identify risk factors for parasitism.
Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.
Study Population—356,086 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals during 2003.
Procedure—Electronic medical records were searched to identify cats for which fecal flotation tests had been performed and to determine proportions of test results positive for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. Potential risk factors for roundworm and hookworm infection were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results—A total of 80,278 tests were performed on fecal samples from 66,819 cats. Calculated prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively. Age, reproductive status, breed, and season were significant risk factors for roundworm infection, with cats < 4 years old; sexually intact cats; mixed-breed cats; and cats examined during the summer, fall, or winter more likely to be infected. Age, reproductive status, and season were significant risk factors for hookworm infection, with cats < 1 year old, sexually intact cats, and cats examined during the summer more likely to be infected. Regional differences in prevalences of roundworm and hookworm infection were found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that prevalences of nematode infections among pet cats in the United States may be lower than previously suspected on the basis of prevalences reported among cats in humane shelters and those reported in more geographically focused studies.
Objective—To characterize clinical signs and lesions
and identify the etiologic agent associated with epizootic
catarrhal enteritis in domestic ferrets.
Animals—119 ferrets with epizootic diarrhea of presumed
viral cause and 5 control ferrets.
Procedure—Clinical records and biopsy or necropsy
specimens of ferrets with presumed epizootic
catarrhal enteritis were reviewed. Immunohistochemical
staining for coronavirus antigen was performed
on paraffin-embedded tissues from approximately
10% of affected ferrets to identify viral antigen
and determine its distribution. Transmission electron
microscopy was performed on fecal samples and sections
of jejunum. Virus isolation studies as well as
immunofluorescent tests for other similar viruses
Results—Characteristic microscopic lesions consistent
with intestinal coronavirus infection (vacuolar
degeneration and necrosis of villus enterocytes; villus
atrophy, fusion, and blunting; and lymphocytic enteritis)
were consistently detected in affected ferrets.
Coronavirus particles were identified in feces and jejunal
enterocytes by use of transmission electron
microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining of jejunal
sections revealed coronavirus antigens. Antigen staining
was not detected in healthy ferrets or ferrets with
other gastrointestinal tract diseases. Virus isolation
was unsuccessful, and other similar viruses were not
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results
strongly implicate a coronavirus as the causative
agent of epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets.
Diagnosis may be made on the basis of a combination
of historical, clinical, and microscopic findings. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:526–530)
Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential
risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events
(VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary
Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002,
through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible
VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic
reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3
days of vaccine administration. Information included
age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific
clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random
sample of 400 affected dogs. The association
between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated
by use of multivariate logistic regression.
Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs
vaccinated) were associated with administration of
3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The
VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight
increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered
versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater
for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9
months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased
as the number of vaccine doses administered per
office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly
increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in
dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult
small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines
per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE
within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors
should be considered in risk assessment and risk
communication with clients regarding vaccination.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)
Objective—To evaluate adrenal sex hormone concentrations
in response to ACTH stimulation in healthy
dogs, dogs with adrenal tumors, and dogs with pituitary-
dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH).
Animals—11 healthy control dogs, 9 dogs with
adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (adenocarcinoma
[ACA] or other tumor); 11 dogs with PDH, and
6 dogs with noncortisol-secreting adrenal tumors
Procedure—Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed on
the basis of clinical signs; physical examination findings;
and results of ACTH stimulation test, low-dose
dexamethasone suppression test, or both. Dogs with
noncortisol-secreting ATs did not have hyperadrenocorticism
but had ultrasonographic evidence of an AT.
Concentrations of cortisol, androstenedione, estradiol,
progesterone, testosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone
were measured before and 1 hour after IM
administration of 0.25 mg of synthetic ACTH.
Results—All dogs with ACA, 10 dogs with PDH, and
4 dogs with ATs had 1 or more sex hormone concentrations
greater than the reference range after ACTH
stimulation. The absolute difference for progesterone,
17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone concentrations
(value obtained after ACTH administration minus
value obtained before ACTH administration) was significantly
greater for dogs with ACA, compared with
the other 3 groups. The absolute difference for
androstenedione was significantly greater for dogs
with ACA, compared with dogs with AT and healthy
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with
ACA secrete increased concentrations of adrenal sex
hormones, compared with dogs with PDH, noncortisol-secreting ATs, and healthy dogs. Dogs with noncortisol-secreting ATs also have increased concentrations of sex hormones. There is great interdog variability
in sex hormone concentrations in dogs with ACA
after stimulation with ACTH. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether heavy (≥ 680 kg [≥ 1,500 lb]) draft horses undergoing surgical treatment for acute signs of abdominal pain were at a greater risk for anesthetic and postoperative complications and lower postoperative survival rates than light (< 680 kg) draft horses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—72 draft horses.
Procedures—Medical records of draft horses that underwent exploratory celiotomy for signs of acute abdominal pain from October 1983 to December 2002 were reviewed. Medical records of draft horses in which a celiotomy was performed for correction of reproductive abnormalities were not included in the study.
Results—When compared with light draft horses, heavy draft horses had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and lower survival rates. Seventy-six percent of horses that recovered from anesthesia had postoperative complications. Postoperative complications associated with low survival rates included myopathy and neuropathy, ileus, diarrhea, and endotoxemia. All horses with postoperative myopathy and neuropathy died or were euthanized. The short-term survival rate for horses that recovered from anesthesia was 60%. Horses undergoing small intestinal surgery had a worse prognosis for short-term survival than those undergoing large intestinal surgery. The survival rate for horses for which long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information was available was 50%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Draft horses weighing > 680 kg that underwent surgery because of acute signs of abdominal pain had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and higher mortality rates than draft horses weighing < 680 kg.