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  • Author or Editor: Larry G. Adams x
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SUMMARY

The influence of induced chronic renal failure on 24- hour urinary excretion and fractional excretion of sodium and potassium was studied in cats. Induction of chronic renal failure significantly increased fractional excretion of potassium (P < 0.0001) and sodium (P < 0.05); however, 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium decreased slightly following induction of chronic renal failure.

Fractional excretion and 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium were compared by linear regression in clinically normal cats, cats with chronic renal failure, and clinically normal and affected cats combined. In clinically normal cats, linear regression revealed only moderate correlation between fractional excretion and 24- hour urinary excretion for sodium and potassium. Linear regression of these same relationships in cats with chronic renal failure, and in clinically normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure combined, indicated low correlation.

Fractional excretions of sodium and potassium were not reliable indicators of 24-hour urinary excretion of these electrolytes in cats with chronic renal failure or unknown glomerular filtration rate. Fractional excretion of potassium and sodium correlated only moderately with 24-hour urinary excretion in clinically normal cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the use of sclerotherapy for the renal-sparing treatment of idiopathic renal hematuria (IRH) in dogs and report clinical outcomes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—6 dogs (8 renal pelvises) with IRH.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent sclerotherapy were reviewed. Each ureterovesicular junction was identified cystoscopically to determine the side of bleeding, and a retrograde ureteropyelogram was performed with endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A ureteropelvic junction balloon was used for ureteral occlusion, and pelvis filling volumes were recorded. A povidone iodine mixture, followed by a sterile silver nitrate solution, was infused into the renal pelvis. A double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed after the procedure. Information on preprocedure and postprocedure biochemical changes, imaging parameters, and clinical outcomes was obtained.

Results—6 dogs (5 males and 1 female) had sclerotherapy for unilateral (4) or bilateral (2) bleeding. Five were right-sided and 3 were left-sided. The median age and weight of dogs were 3 years and 42.4 kg (93.28 lb), respectively. Median procedure time was 150 minutes. One dog that did not have a ureteral stent placed following the procedure developed short-term signs of renal pain and pyelectasis. Cessation of macroscopic hematuria occurred in 4 of 6 dogs (median, 6 hours). Two additional dogs improved moderately. Median follow-up time was 8 months (range, 3.5 to 20.5 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical sclerotherapy for IRH was safe and effective. Local sclerotherapy for IRH in dogs could be considered a valuable and minimally invasive renal-sparing treatment over ureteronephrectomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the diagnostic utility of transurethral cystoscopic biopsy in dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and urethra.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—92 dogs with histologically confirmed TCC.

Procedures—Information on sex, breed, neuter status, body weight, tumor location, biopsy method, number of biopsy procedures, experience level of clinician performing biopsy, and quality of biopsy sample was obtained from medical records. The association of variables with likelihood of achieving a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample was evaluated by use of logistic regression.

Results—If used as the initial biopsy method, cystoscopic biopsy samples were of diagnostic quality in 65% of male dogs and 96% of female dogs with histologically confirmed TCC. Cystoscopic biopsy samples were significantly more likely to be of diagnostic quality in female dogs than in male dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystoscopic biopsy is an effective method to obtain biopsy samples in dogs with TCC of the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy is more likely to produce a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample in female dogs with TCC than in male dogs with TCC. Cystoscopy should be considered as a primary means of biopsy in male and female dogs with masses of the urinary bladder or urethra.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association