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  • Author or Editor: Kenneth W. Kwochka x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare results of intradermal tests (IDT) for environmental allergens at 30 minutes and 4, 6, and 24 hours after injection in horses without atopy and horses with atopic dermatitis (AD) or recurrent urticaria (RU).

Animals—22 horses without atopy, 10 horses with RU, and 7 horses with AD.

Procedure—In all horses, medical history was obtained, and results of physical examination, hematologic examination, serum biochemical analyses, examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and IDT with 73 allergens were examined.

Results—Horses with AD or RU had a significantly greater mean number of positive reactions for IDT, compared with horses without atopy. Horses with AD had a significantly greater number of positive reactions than horses without atopy in every allergen group at all time periods, except for molds at 4 and 24 hours. Horses with RU had a significantly greater number of positive reactions than horses without atopy in every allergen group, except for molds at 30 minutes and 4 and 6 hours, trees at 4 and 6 hours, and grasses at 4 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A significantly greater number of positive reactions for IDT in horses with AD or RU, compared with horses without atopy, provides evidence of type-I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity for these diseases. Evaluation of results of IDT performed in horses with AD or RU is useful in determining specific allergens for the formulation of immunotherapy along with providing identification of allergens that could be useful when creating avoidance strategies. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1051–1059)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedures—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central airconditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1301–1309)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the concentration of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, Der f 1 and group 2, on the skin and hair of dogs and whether associations exist between the presence of Der f 1 and group 2 allergens on the skin and hair of dogs and household and dog characteristics.

Animals—63 pet dogs from 50 homes.

Procedure—Dogs were weighed and body surface area in square meters was determined. Skin and hair samples were obtained by vacuuming dogs. Collected dust was analyzed by use of standard ELISA techniques.

Results—HDM allergen was detected in 21 of 59 skin and hair samples. Presence of group 2 allergen on skin and hair of dogs was significantly associated with long hair, compared with short or medium length hair. Median house dust sample concentrations of Der f 1 and group 2 allergens were high in homes with dogs that had skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens. Dogs with skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens resided in homes with a high number of house dust samples that were positive for Der f 1, group 2, or both allergens and in homes with a mean house dust sample allergen concentration of ≥ 2 µg/g of dust.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations exist between environmental HDM allergen concentrations and HDM allergens on the skin and hair samples of dogs. Environmental allergen load is a major factor in accumulation of allergens on the skin and hair of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:143–149)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedure—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central air-conditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1580–1588)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research