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History

An adult sexually intact male feral cat of unknown age was evaluated by a veterinarian in southern Missouri in late April because of anorexia, dehydration, and fever (rectal temperature, 39.6°C [103.3°F]) of unknown duration. Serologic testing revealed that the cat had no circulating FeLV antigen or antibodies against FIV. The cat died 4 days later despite administration of enrofloxacin SC and administration of fluid therapy SC. The body was submitted for necropsy examination.

Clinical and Gross Findings

No other clinical tests had been performed prior to death. At necropsy, the cat was in good body condition with adequate body

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 17-week-old 14.4-kg (31.7-lb) female German Shepherd Dog from Missouri with a history of multiple intermittent episodes of vomiting and diarrhea underwent exploratory celiotomy.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

At the time of surgery, the dog was bright, alert, and responsive, with a tender abdomen and palpable mesenteric lymph nodes. Hematologic data revealed mild leukocytosis, mild hypoproteinemia, and mild hypoalbuminemia. Moderate petechiation of the jejunal serosa and prominent mesenteric lymph nodes, but no palpable obstructions, were found during surgery. Jejunal and lymph node biopsies were performed; histologic examination revealed multiple segments of adult cestodes up to 700 μm long in the jejunum. Segments had a scolex and contained approximately 30- to 35-μm-diameter ova, morphologically compatible with Echinococcus spp. Fecal flotation revealed numerous proglottids and ova similar to those recognized histologically. Results of PCR assays confirmed Echinococcus multilocularis of E4 haplotype (a European strain).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Praziquantel (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], SC, once) was administered after surgery; treatments after hospital discharge included praziquantel (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, once). No proglottids or ova were observed by fecal flotation after the treatments. The dog remained healthy without gastrointestinal signs 1 year later.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The dog of this report had no travel history outside the state of Missouri. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal E multilocularis infection in a pet dog in the contiguous United States and first detection of a European strain of E multilocularis in this country. Findings suggested possible establishment of a European strain of this zoonotic pathogen in the contiguous United States.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.

Sample—Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5).

Procedures—Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; results were compared against a nonredundant protein database. Expression of complement component 3 in archived tissue samples was determined via immunohistochemical methods.

Results—No proteins had significantly different expression between serum samples of control dogs versus those of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis. Eleven proteins (complement component 3 precursor, complement factor I precursor, apolipoprotein B-100 precursor, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein precursor, serum amyloid A, transthyretin precursor, retinol-binding protein 4 precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, angiotensinogen precursor, and fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preproprotein) had significantly different expression (> 2.0-fold) between synovial fluid samples obtained before surgery from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis versus those obtained from control dogs. Complement component 3 was strongly expressed in all (5/5) synovial membrane samples of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis and weakly expressed in 3 of 5 synovial membrane samples of dogs without stifle joint arthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that the complement system and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism may have a role in stifle joint osteoarthritis, CCL disease, or both.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare biomaterials used in orthopedics with respect to in vitro cell viability and cell retention and to in vivo tissue healing and regeneration.

Animals—65 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and synovium, tendon, meniscus, and bone marrow specimens obtained from 4 adult canine cadavers.

Procedures—Synovium, tendon, meniscus, and bone marrow specimens were used to obtain synovial fibroblasts, tendon fibroblasts, meniscal fibrochondrocytes, and bone marrow–derived connective tissue progenitor cells for culture on 5 biomaterials as follows: cross-linked porcine small intestine (CLPSI), non–cross-linked human dermis, cross-linked porcine dermis, non–cross-linked porcine small intestine (NCLPSI), and non–cross-linked fetal bovine dermis. After 1 week of culture, samples were evaluated for cell viability, cell density, and extracellular matrix production. Biomaterials were evaluated in a 1-cm2 abdominal wall defect in rats. Each biomaterial was subjectively evaluated for handling, suturing, defect fit, and ease of creating the implant at the time of surgery, then grossly and histologically 6 and 12 weeks after surgery.

Results—All biomaterials allowed for retention of viable cells in culture; however, CLPSI and NCLPSI were consistently superior in terms of cell viability and cell retention. Cell infiltration for NCLPSI was superior to other biomaterials. The NCLPSI appeared to be replaced with regenerative tissue most rapidly in vivo and scored highest in all subjective evaluations of ease of use.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that NCLPSI and CLPSI have favorable properties for further investigation of clinical application in orthopedic tissue engineering.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of carprofen and dexamethasone on chondrocytes in a culture model of osteoarthritis (OA).

Sample Population—Chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage of the humeral head of 5 adult dogs.

Procedure—Chondrocytes were harvested, cultured and subcultured in monolayer, and then cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) medium. Cells from each dog were distributed into 6 groups with differing content of liquid medium for each 3-D construct (agarose [AG], AG plus interleukin [IL]-1β, AG plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], AG plus dexamethasone [1 mg/mL], AG plus IL-1β [20 ng/mL] plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], and AG plus IL-1β (20 ng/mL) plus dexamethasone (1 mg/mL). On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of culture, samples from all groups were collected. Liquid media were assayed for glycosaminoglycan, prostaglandin (PG)E2, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3, and MMP- 13 concentrations. All 3-D constructs were evaluated for viability, cell morphology, proteoglycan staining, and collagen type-II concentration. Total glycosaminoglycan content in each 3-D construct was quantitated by spectrophotometric assay.

Results—Addition of IL-1β caused a significant loss of cell viability and matrix production. Addition of carprofen or dexamethasone caused significant decreases in PGE2 in the liquid media, and each was minimally effective in protecting chondrocytes against negative effects of IL-1β.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Human recombinant IL-1β resulted in loss of cell viability, alterations in extracellular matrix components, and production of PG and MMP. Carprofen and dexamethasone had little effect on cell and matrix variables but did decrease PGE2 concentrations and primarily affected the inflammatory pathway of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1363–1369)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between histologic degeneration of cranial cruciate ligaments (CCLs) and severity of synovitis and ligament vascularity.

SAMPLE: CCL and synovium from 59 stifle joints (53 dogs). PROCEDURES: CCL and synovium specimens were obtained from stifle joints of juvenile (15 joints; 12 dogs) and adult (25 joints; 22 dogs) dogs with intact CCLs and dogs with CCL rupture (rCCL; 19 joints; 19 dogs). Vascular density and degenerative changes of the CCL core region and severity of synovitis were semiquantitatively evaluated. Relationships were analyzed by use of a random effects model to account for correlated specimens.

RESULTS: Mean ± SD modified Bonar scores (scale, 0 to 9) of adults (4.85 ± 0.44) and dogs with rCCL (5.69 ± 0.49) were significantly higher than scores of juveniles (1.13 ± 0.55). Vascularity scores (scale, 0 to 3) were significantly higher for juveniles (3.00 ± 0.24) than for adults (1.53 ± 0.27) and dogs with rCCL (0.78 ± 0.23). Synovitis scores were not significantly different among groups. There was a significant negative relationship between modified Bonar scores and vascularity scores for juveniles and adults and for adults and dogs with rCCL when controlling for age, but there was not a significant relationship between modified Bonar scores and synovitis scores. There was a significant relationship between modified Bonar scores and body weight of adults.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Poor blood supply to the core region could be an important underlying condition for spontaneous degeneration of the CCL in at-risk dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration and immunohistochemical staining characteristics of type-I, -II, and -X collagen from cartilage affected by osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs.

Animals—31 dogs with OCD and 11 clinically normal purpose-bred dogs.

Procedure—Cartilage samples were evaluated microscopically, and GAG content was determined. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for type-I, -II, and -X collagen. Sections were subjectively evaluated for location and intensity of staining.

Results—Cartilage affected by OCD had a variety of pathologic changes and significantly lower GAG concentrations than did normal cartilage. Normal cartilage had no detectable type-I collagen. For dogs < 9 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD had significantly more type-I collagen but significantly less type- X collagen than did control cartilage. For dogs > 12 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD contained significantly more type-I collagen than did control cartilage. There was a significant negative correlation between immunoreactivity of type-I collagen and that of type-II and -X collagen. A significant positive correlation was found between immunoreactivity of type-II and -X collagen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cartilage affected by OCD contains less GAG, more type-I collagen, and less type-X collagen, compared with normal cartilage. A direct correlation between these changes and the etiopathogenesis of OCD was not established. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:876–881)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine biomechanical and biochemical properties of the medial meniscus in a semistable stifle model and in clinical patients and to determine the effect of canine recombinant somatotropin hormone (STH) on those properties.

Animals—22 healthy adult dogs and 12 dogs with meniscal damage secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture.

Procedure—The CCL was transected in 15 dogs, and stifles were immediately stabilized. Implants releasing 4 mg of STH/d were placed in 7 dogs, and 8 received sham implants. Seven dogs were used as untreated controls. Force plate analysis was performed before surgery and 2, 5, and 10 weeks after surgery. After 10 weeks, dogs were euthanatized, and menisci from surgical and contralateral stifles were harvested. The torn caudal horn of the medial meniscus in dogs with CCL rupture comprised the clinical group. Creep indentation determined aggregate modulus (HA), Poisson's ratio (v), permeability (k), and percentage recovery (%R). Water content (%W), collagen content (C), sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content, and collagen type-I (cI) and -II (cII) immunoreactivity were also determined.

Results—Surgical and clinical groups had lower HA, k, %R, C, sGAG, cI, and cII and higher %W than the nonsurgical group. Surgical stifles with greater weight bearing had stiffer menisci than those bearing less weight. Collagen content was higher in the surgical group receiving STH than the surgical group without STH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute stabilization and moderate weight bearing of the CCL-deficient stifle appear to protect stiffness of the medial meniscus. Normal appearing menisci from CCL-deficient stifles can have alterations in biomechanical and biochemical properties, which may contribute to meniscal failure. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:419–426)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13 in cartilaginous tumors of dogs, correlate expression of MMP with histologic grade of tumors and clinical outcome of dogs, and compare MMP immunoreactivity between chondrosarcomas and chondromas.

Sample Population—Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from samples of naturally occurring chondrosarcomas (n = 31) and chondromas (8) of dogs that were submitted to our veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory.

Procedure—Histologic sections from each sample were stained with H&E and monoclonal antibody to MMP-1, -3, and -13 by use of an avidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique. For each section, histologic grade (I, II, or III) and immunohistochemical expression (0, 1, 2, or 3) were evaluated. Clinical outcome was obtained from medical records or interviews with referring veterinarians and scored as a good outcome, moderate outcome, or poor outcome. Correlations among variables and differences between chondrosarcomas and chondromas were analyzed.

Results—Samples from chondrosarcomas had significantly higher immunoreactivity of MMP-1 and -13, compared with immunoreactivity in samples from chondromas. In chondrosarcomas, a significant positive correlation (r, 0.386) was found between MMP-1 and -13 immunoreactivities, and a significant negative correlation (r, –0.390) was detected between MMP-3 and -13 immunoreactivities.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in expression of collagenases (MMP-1 and - 13) in chondrosarcomas, compared with expression in chondromas, suggests that collagenases may play an important role in tumor progression, and possibly metastasis, in chondrosarcomas of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1285–1291)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research