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History

A 2.5-year-old 62.6-kg (137.7-lb) pregnant female Huacaya alpaca was evaluated because of a mass associated with its left shoulder region. The mass was first detected 1 month prior and had doubled in size in the intervening period. The owners had not noted it to cause signs of pain, cause lameness, or affect the alpaca's eating or locomotion. There was no known traumatic event preceding the appearance of the mass. No other animals on the farm had similar lesions currently or in the past. The alpaca was reported to be in its 10th month of gestation, as determined on the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine uroplakin III expression, potential etiologic factors, biological behavior, and treatment response of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the abdominal wall (ABWTCC) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 dogs with TCC of the urinary tract that also had histopathologic confirmation of ABWTCC.

Procedures—Medical records, histologic slides, radiographs, and ultrasonographic images of dogs with ABWTCC between July 1, 1985, and December 31, 2010, were reviewed. In available tissue specimens, immunohistochemistry was used to detect uroplakin III expression in the ABWTCC and in the primary tumor.

Results—The ABWTCC lesions ranged from < 2 to > 20 cm in diameter. Uroplakin III was expressed in 19 of 20 primary tumors and 17 of 17 ABWTCCs. Transitional cell carcinoma in the abdominal wall developed significantly more often in dogs that had undergone cystotomy (18/177 [10.2%]) than in those that had not (6/367 [1.6%]). In 1 dog that had not undergone cystotomy, TCC had invaded through the urinary bladder wall and spread down the median ligament to the abdominal wall. None of 18 dogs that received anticancer drugs had remission of the ABWTCC once clinically detected; median survival time after ABWTCC detection was 57 days (range, 0 to 324 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ABWTCC is uncommon, but once TCC becomes established and clinically detectable in the abdominal wall, it carries a poor prognosis. It is crucial to minimize risk of TCC seeding at surgery. Percutaneous sampling of TCC should be avoided. Uroplakin III is commonly expressed in ABWTCC.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the diagnostic utility of transurethral cystoscopic biopsy in dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and urethra.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—92 dogs with histologically confirmed TCC.

Procedures—Information on sex, breed, neuter status, body weight, tumor location, biopsy method, number of biopsy procedures, experience level of clinician performing biopsy, and quality of biopsy sample was obtained from medical records. The association of variables with likelihood of achieving a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample was evaluated by use of logistic regression.

Results—If used as the initial biopsy method, cystoscopic biopsy samples were of diagnostic quality in 65% of male dogs and 96% of female dogs with histologically confirmed TCC. Cystoscopic biopsy samples were significantly more likely to be of diagnostic quality in female dogs than in male dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystoscopic biopsy is an effective method to obtain biopsy samples in dogs with TCC of the bladder and urethra. Cystoscopy is more likely to produce a diagnostic-quality biopsy sample in female dogs with TCC than in male dogs with TCC. Cystoscopy should be considered as a primary means of biopsy in male and female dogs with masses of the urinary bladder or urethra.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of mammary duct ectasia in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—51 dogs with mammary duct ectasia.

Procedure—Information regarding body condition, history, number and location of affected mammary glands, appearance of lesions, surgical treatment, nonsurgical treatment, and evidence of recurrence or development of mammary neoplasia was obtained from surveys sent to referring veterinarians. Results of information from examination of histologic sections and referring veterinarians were evaluated for all mammary duct ectasia biopsies performed between 1992 and 1999.

Results—Duct ectasia was the primary diagnosis in 51 of 1,825 (2.8%) mammary biopsy specimens and comprised 48% of nonneoplastic mammary diseases. Affected dogs were evenly distributed over a range of 1 to 13 years of age, with a mean age at the time of diagnosis of 6.1 ± 3.1 years. All dogs were female (31 sexually intact, 20 spayed); 10 of 26 had whelped. Duct ectasia was described as nodular (26 dogs), cystic (13), and multiglandular (11) and located in caudal (31) more often than cranial (14) or middle glands (10). Ectasia recurred in 3 dogs. One dog had a history of previously excised mammary adenocarcinoma; another subsequently developed mammary carcinoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duct ectasia affected mature, sexually intact and spayed female dogs over a wide age range. Certain breeds were affected more commonly than expected. Increased risk for mammary neoplasia was not evident. Duct ectasia should be considered as a cause for mammary enlargement, especially in young dogs or when its cystic nature is evident. Mastectomy is usually curative, and neoplasia should be ruled out in dogs with ectasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1303–1307)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify rabies virus variants (RVVs) isolated from bats and terrestrial mammals in Nuevo Leon between 2008 and 2015 and Coahuila in 2006.

SAMPLE

RVVs isolated from 15 bats and terrestrial mammals in Nuevo Leon and from a cow (Bos taurus) in Coahuila, along with 46 reference rabies virus sequences.

PROCEDURES

Antigenic characterization of the 16 isolates was performed with an indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Genomic sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene in the 16 isolates was performed with a reverse transcription PCR assay. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the 62 sequences was performed by means of Bayesian inference.

RESULTS

9 isolates from bats and 1 isolate from a domestic cat that became infected as a result of contact with a Mexican free-tailed bat all clustered in the lineage associated with Lasiurus spp in the Americas or the lineage associated with Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana. An isolate from a domestic dog was identified as a variant associated with the dog-coyote lineage. The RVV isolated from a fox clustered in an Arizona fox lineage. The 3 RVVs from skunks (Mephitis macroura) were placed in a lineage with variants isolated from spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius). The RVV isolated from the cow was clustered in a lineage associated with foxes in Texas and separate from the lineage for the fox from Nuevo Leon.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results reinforced the need for Mexico to implement rabies surveillance and monitoring programs for bats and wild-living terrestrial carnivores.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13 in cartilaginous tumors of dogs, correlate expression of MMP with histologic grade of tumors and clinical outcome of dogs, and compare MMP immunoreactivity between chondrosarcomas and chondromas.

Sample Population—Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from samples of naturally occurring chondrosarcomas (n = 31) and chondromas (8) of dogs that were submitted to our veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory.

Procedure—Histologic sections from each sample were stained with H&E and monoclonal antibody to MMP-1, -3, and -13 by use of an avidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique. For each section, histologic grade (I, II, or III) and immunohistochemical expression (0, 1, 2, or 3) were evaluated. Clinical outcome was obtained from medical records or interviews with referring veterinarians and scored as a good outcome, moderate outcome, or poor outcome. Correlations among variables and differences between chondrosarcomas and chondromas were analyzed.

Results—Samples from chondrosarcomas had significantly higher immunoreactivity of MMP-1 and -13, compared with immunoreactivity in samples from chondromas. In chondrosarcomas, a significant positive correlation (r, 0.386) was found between MMP-1 and -13 immunoreactivities, and a significant negative correlation (r, –0.390) was detected between MMP-3 and -13 immunoreactivities.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in expression of collagenases (MMP-1 and - 13) in chondrosarcomas, compared with expression in chondromas, suggests that collagenases may play an important role in tumor progression, and possibly metastasis, in chondrosarcomas of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1285–1291)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research