Objective—To assess awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of surveillance and infection control practices at a large animal referral hospital among referring veterinarians and clients who sent horses to the facility for veterinary care.
Sample—57 referring veterinarians and 594 clients.
Procedures—A 15-question survey targeting Salmonella enterica as an important pathogen of interest in horses was sent to clients who sent ≥ 1 horse to the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital for veterinary care during July 1, 2007, through July 1, 2011, and to veterinarians who had referred horses to the same hospital prior to July 1, 2011. Responses were summarized with descriptive statistics. The χ2 test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine associations among variables of interest.
Results—Survey response rates were low (57/467 [12%] for veterinarians and 594/3,095 [19%] for clients). Significantly more (35/56 [63%]) veterinarians than clients (227/585 [39%]) were aware that the hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Most veterinarians (56/57 [98%]) and clients (554/574 [97%]) indicated that sampling and testing of horses to detect Salmonella shedding in feces at admission and during hospitalization was justified. In addition, on a scale of 1 (not important) to 10 (very important), veterinarians and clients indicated it was very important (median score, 10 [interquartile range, 8 to 10] for both groups) that a referral hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Survey results indicated that awareness of hospital surveillance and infection control practices was higher among veterinarians than clients, and these practices were considered relevant and well-accepted among participant veterinarians and clients.
Objective—To evaluate horseshoe characteristics
and high-speed exercise history as risk factors for catastrophic
musculoskeletal injury in Thoroughbred
Animals—377 horses (37,529 race starts).
Procedure—Shoe characteristics included material,
toe grab height, heel traction device, pads, and rim
shoes. Racing variables were obtained from a computerized
database. Forty-three horses that had a
musculoskeletal injury and then failed to race or train
for 6 months (cases) and 334 noninjured horses from
the same race in which a horse was injured (controls)
were compared regarding risk factors.
Results—Overall, 98% of race starts were associated
with aluminum shoes, 85% with toe grabs, 32% with
pads, and 12% with rims on forelimb horseshoes.
Among 43 horses with musculoskeletal injury, sex
(geldings), an extended interval since last race, and
reduced exercise during the 30 or 60 days preceding
injury were risk factors for catastrophic injury. Odds
of injury in racehorses with toe grabs on front shoes
were 1.5 times the odds of injury in horses without
toe grabs, but this association was not significant
(95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 4.1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that horses that return to racing after an extended
period of reduced exercise are at high risk of catastrophic
musculoskeletal injury. Results regarding the
use of toe grabs as a possible risk factor for catastrophic
injury were inconclusive because the probability
of declaring (in error) that use of toe grabs was
associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal
injury (eg, odds ratio > 1.0) was 38%. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1314–1320)
Objective—To determine whether passive transfer of
IgG in neonatal kittens affects plasma opsonic capacity
and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst
responses to bacteria in vitro.
Animals—22 kittens from 6 specific pathogen-free
Procedure—Kittens were randomized at birth into the
following treatment groups: colostrum-fed,
colostrum-deprived, or colostrum-deprived supplemented
with feline or equine IgG. Blood samples
were collected at intervals from birth to 56 days of
age. Plasma IgG concentrations were determined by
radial immunodiffusion assay. Neutrophil function
was assessed by a flow cytometry assay providing
simultaneous measurement of bacteria-induced
phagocytosis and oxidative burst. The opsonic capacity
of kitten plasma was determined in an
opsonophagocytosis assay with bacteria incubated in
untreated or heat-inactivated plasma.
Results—Among treatment groups, there were no
significant differences in neutrophil phagocytic and
oxidative burst responses to bacteria or opsonic
capacity of plasma. In all samples of plasma, inactivation
of complement and other heat-labile opsonins
significantly reduced the opsonic capacity. Plasma
IgG concentrations in kittens did not correlate with
neutrophil function or plasma opsonic capacity before
or after inactivation of complement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The plasma
opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative
burst responses in vitro of kittens receiving passive
transfer of IgG via colostrum intake or IgG supplementation
and those deprived of colostrum were similar.
The alternate complement pathway or other heat-labile
opsonins may be more important than IgG in bacterial
opsonization and phagocytosis. ( Am J Vet Res
Objective—To compare calving-to-conception intervals
among cows classified as nonlame, moderately
lame, or lame during the prebreeding postpartum
period and to examine the relationship between
severity of lameness and time to conception in cows
that were classified as lame.
Animals—499 Holstein cows.
Procedure—Cows in the prebreeding postpartum
period were classified as nonlame, moderately lame,
or lame by use of a 6-point locomotion scoring system.
Time to conception (days) was compared among
cows. A low, medium, or high cumulative locomotion
score was assigned to lame cows, and time to conception
among those cows was compared. Cows
classified as lame were examined on a tilt table for
diagnosis and treatment of lameness.
Results—154 (31%), 214 (43%), and 131 (26%) cows
were classified as nonlame, moderately lame, and
lame, respectively. Most cows classified as lame had
laminitis (54%) or disorders of the claw (33%).
Median time to conception was 36 to 50 days longer
in lame cows than in nonlame cows. Among lame
cows, the median time to conception was 66 days
longer in cows with high cumulative locomotion
scores than in cows with low scores.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Nonlame cows
became pregnant more quickly than lame cows. Lame
cows with low cumulative locomotion scores during the
prebreeding postpartum period became pregnant sooner
than lame cows with high scores. Early diagnosis and
intervention may mitigate the effects of lameness and
improve reproductive performance in lame dairy cows.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1284–1291)
Objective—To compare milk yield among cows classified
as nonlame, moderately lame, and lame and to
examine the relationship between severity of lameness
and milk yield in cows classified as lame during
the first 100 days after parturition.
Animals—465 Holstein cows.
Procedure—Cows were examined weekly during the
first 100 days after parturition and assigned a lameness
score by use of a 6-point locomotion scoring
system (ie, 0 to 5). Milk yield was compared among
cows classified as nonlame, moderately lame, and
lame. Among cows classified as lame (locomotion
score ≥ 4), milk yield was compared for cows with
low, medium, and high cumulative locomotion scores.
Cows classified as lame were further examined on a
tilt table for diagnosis and treatment of lameness.
Results—84 (18%), 212 (46%), and 169 (36%) cows
were classified as nonlame, moderately lame, and
lame, respectively. Among cows in their second or
later lactations, milk yield in lame cows was significantly
lower than that in moderately lame and nonlame
cows. In addition, among cows classified as
lame, milk yield was significantly lower in cows with
high locomotion scores during the first 100 days after
parturition, compared with cows with low scores.
Most (58%) cows classified as lame had laminitis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
a linear relationship between increasing degree
of lameness and decreasing milk yield among cows in
their second or later lactations. The locomotion scoring
system used in this study may be a useful management
tool that veterinarians and dairy farmers
could adopt for early detection of lameness in dairy
cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1292–1296)
Objective—To identify risk factors that may predispose
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to
development of cutaneous poxvirus nodules during
hospitalization in a rehabilitation center.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—90 California sea lions admitted to a rehabilitation
Procedure—Hospital records of 275 stranded
California sea lions admitted to the rehabilitation center
between January 1 and December 31, 2002, were
reviewed. All California sea lions (n = 18) that developed
≥ 1 cutaneous poxvirus nodule during hospitalization
were classified as cases. Seventy-two
California sea lions that did not develop poxvirus
lesions during hospitalization were randomly selected
(control group). The frequencies of various exposure
factors prior to admission, at admission, and during
hospitalization for cases and control sea lions were
compared by use of logistic regression.
Results—California sea lions that had previously been
admitted to the rehabilitation center were 43 times as
likely to develop poxvirus lesions as sea lions admitted
for the first time; those with high band neutrophil
counts (> 0.69 × 103 bands/μL) at admission were 20
times less likely to develop poxvirus lesions than sea
lions with counts within reference limits.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that sea lions with a history of prior hospitalization
or band neutrophil counts within reference limits
at admission were more likely to develop poxvirus
lesions during hospitalization. Sea lions with histories
of hospitalization should be kept in quarantine and
infection control measures implemented to help prevent
disease transmission to attending personnel and
other hospitalized animals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To characterize lameness during training and compare exercise variables and financial returns among yearling Thoroughbreds that were bought for the purpose of resale for profit.
Animals—40 yearling Thoroughbreds.
Procedures—Horses purchased at yearling sales (summer 2004) were trained prior to resale at 2-year-olds in training sales (spring 2005). Horses were monitored daily for diagnosis and treatment of lameness during training. Selected variables, including sex, age, purchase price, lameness, distance (No. of furlongs) galloped during training, and financial returns, were compared among horses that had performance speeds (assessed at 2-year-olds in training sales) classified as fast, average, or slow.
Results—37 of 40 horses became lame during training, most commonly because of joint injury. Eighteen of the lame horses had hind limb injuries only; 5 horses had injuries in forelimbs and hind limbs. The frequency of new cases of lameness increased as the date of the 2-year-olds in training sales approached. At the sales, 4, 21, and 15 horses were classified as fast, average, or slow, respectively; median financial return was slightly (but significantly) different among horses classified as fast ($14,000), average ($0), or slow (–$8,000).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of lameness during training in yearling horses purchased for the purpose of resale for profit was high. Lameness more commonly affected hind limbs than forelimbs and was attributable to joint injury in most horses. Financial returns differed between horses classified as fast and average or slow at the 2-year-olds in training sales.
Objective—To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) in a population of US dogs with influenza-like illness (ILI) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity.
Animals—1,268 pet and shelter dogs with ILI in 42 states.
Procedures—Serum samples collected from dogs from 2005 through June 2009 were tested for H3N8 CIV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Intrinsic factors (age, breed, and sex), extrinsic factors (dogs housed in a shelter facility, boarding kennel, or other setting), and geographic region (southwest, west, Midwest, southeast, and northeast) were compared between seropositive and seronegative dogs to identify variables associated with seropositivity.
Results—Most (750/1,268 [59%]) dogs in the study were from Colorado, Florida, or New York. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 CIV was 49% (618/1,268 dogs; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 51%). The annual prevalence of H3N8 CIV seropositivity increased from 2005 (44%) to 2006 (53%) and 2007 (62%), then decreased in 2008 (38%) and 2009 (15%). The likelihood of H3N8 CIV seropositivity was associated with geographic region (southeast during 2005, west and northeast during 2006 and 2007, and northeast during 2008) and exposure setting (dogs housed in a shelter facility or boarding kennel during 2005 and 2006).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested there is a need for continued surveillance for H3N8 CIV infection in dogs in the United States and that personnel in communal dog-housing facilities should formulate, implement, and evaluate biosecurity protocols to reduce the risk of CIV transmission among dogs.
Objective—To evaluate WBC concentration, plasma
fibrinogen concentration, and an agar gel immunodiffusion
(AGID) test for early identification of Rhodococcus
Animals—162 foals from a farm with enzootic R equi
Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from
each foal at 4-week intervals for measurement of
WBC and plasma fibrinogen concentrations and at
2-week intervals for detection of anti-R equi antibody
by an AGID assay. Diagnostic performance of
WBC and fibrinogen concentrations was assessed
by use of receiver operating characteristic curve
analysis. For each assay, sensitivity, specificity, and
predictive values were calculated at various cutoff
points; bacteriologic culture of R equi from a tracheobronchial
aspirate was used as the reference
Results—Diagnostic performance of WBC concentration
was significantly higher than that of fibrinogen
concentration. Sensitivity and specificity of measurement
of WBC concentration at a cutoff of 13,000
cells/µL were 95.2 and 61.2%, respectively; at a cutoff
of 15,000 cells/µL, sensitivity was 78.6% and
specificity was 90.8%. When a positive test result
was used as the cutoff, sensitivity of the AGID assay
was 62.5% and specificity was 53.8%.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Monitoring WBC
concentration is a useful approach for early detection of
infected foals on farms with a high prevalence of R equi
pneumonia. In contrast, serologic surveillance by use of
an AGID assay is of little benefit for that purpose. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:775–781)
Objective—To assess the efficacy of prophylactic hoof health examination and trimming during midlactation at reducing the incidence of lameness during late lactation in dairy cows.
Design—Randomized field trial.
Animals—333 Holstein cows.
Procedures—Cows without apparent lameness were randomly allocated into 1 of 2 groups approximately 204 days after calving. Cows allocated to the treatment group (n = 161) were examined on a tilt table for diagnosis and underwent hoof-trimming procedures, if needed, for treatment of hoof disorders or lesions. Cows in the control group (n = 172) were not examined. Cows were assigned a locomotion score weekly for 28 weeks after allocation to a group. The number of cows classified as lame during late lactation (approx 205 to 400 days after calving) was compared between groups to assess the efficacy of prophylactic examination and trimming.
Results—Incidence of lameness during late lactation was 24% in cows in the control group and 18% in cows in the treatment group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 25% decrease in number of new cases of lameness in cows undergoing prophylactic hoof health examination and trimming during midlactation may be relevant for the well-being of dairy cows and should not represent a major economic burden to producers.