Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify factors associated with anhidrosis in horses in Florida.
Design—Cross-sectional study and case-control study.
Animals—4,620 horses on 500 farms.
Procedures—A questionnaire was structured and mailed to farm owners or managers to obtain information related to diagnosis of anhidrosis in horses and exposure factors associated with this condition. The frequency of investigated farm- and animal-level factors was compared between farms and horses affected and not affected with anhidrosis, respectively.
Results—The prevalence of anhidrosis was 11% at the farm level and 2% at the animal level. The odds of anhidrosis were 2.13 and 4.40 times as high in farms located in central and southern Florida, respectively, compared with odds for farms in northern Florida. The odds of anhidrosis were 5.26 and 15.40 times as high in show and riding instruction operations, respectively, compared with odds for ranch operations. At the animal level, breed (Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses), foaling place (western or midwestern region of the United States), and family history of anhidrosis were significantly associated with anhidrosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provides new information on the prevalence of and factors for anhidrosis in horses in Florida. Horses with a family history of anhidrosis should be examined by a veterinarian for diagnosis of this condition before they are exposed to exercise in a hot and humid climate.
Objective—To determine whether passive transfer of
IgG in neonatal kittens affects plasma opsonic capacity
and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst
responses to bacteria in vitro.
Animals—22 kittens from 6 specific pathogen-free
Procedure—Kittens were randomized at birth into the
following treatment groups: colostrum-fed,
colostrum-deprived, or colostrum-deprived supplemented
with feline or equine IgG. Blood samples
were collected at intervals from birth to 56 days of
age. Plasma IgG concentrations were determined by
radial immunodiffusion assay. Neutrophil function
was assessed by a flow cytometry assay providing
simultaneous measurement of bacteria-induced
phagocytosis and oxidative burst. The opsonic capacity
of kitten plasma was determined in an
opsonophagocytosis assay with bacteria incubated in
untreated or heat-inactivated plasma.
Results—Among treatment groups, there were no
significant differences in neutrophil phagocytic and
oxidative burst responses to bacteria or opsonic
capacity of plasma. In all samples of plasma, inactivation
of complement and other heat-labile opsonins
significantly reduced the opsonic capacity. Plasma
IgG concentrations in kittens did not correlate with
neutrophil function or plasma opsonic capacity before
or after inactivation of complement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The plasma
opsonic capacity and neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative
burst responses in vitro of kittens receiving passive
transfer of IgG via colostrum intake or IgG supplementation
and those deprived of colostrum were similar.
The alternate complement pathway or other heat-labile
opsonins may be more important than IgG in bacterial
opsonization and phagocytosis. ( Am J Vet Res
Objective—To characterize lameness during training and compare exercise variables and financial returns among yearling Thoroughbreds that were bought for the purpose of resale for profit.
Animals—40 yearling Thoroughbreds.
Procedures—Horses purchased at yearling sales (summer 2004) were trained prior to resale at 2-year-olds in training sales (spring 2005). Horses were monitored daily for diagnosis and treatment of lameness during training. Selected variables, including sex, age, purchase price, lameness, distance (No. of furlongs) galloped during training, and financial returns, were compared among horses that had performance speeds (assessed at 2-year-olds in training sales) classified as fast, average, or slow.
Results—37 of 40 horses became lame during training, most commonly because of joint injury. Eighteen of the lame horses had hind limb injuries only; 5 horses had injuries in forelimbs and hind limbs. The frequency of new cases of lameness increased as the date of the 2-year-olds in training sales approached. At the sales, 4, 21, and 15 horses were classified as fast, average, or slow, respectively; median financial return was slightly (but significantly) different among horses classified as fast ($14,000), average ($0), or slow (–$8,000).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of lameness during training in yearling horses purchased for the purpose of resale for profit was high. Lameness more commonly affected hind limbs than forelimbs and was attributable to joint injury in most horses. Financial returns differed between horses classified as fast and average or slow at the 2-year-olds in training sales.
Objective—To evaluate horseshoe characteristics
and high-speed exercise history as risk factors for catastrophic
musculoskeletal injury in Thoroughbred
Animals—377 horses (37,529 race starts).
Procedure—Shoe characteristics included material,
toe grab height, heel traction device, pads, and rim
shoes. Racing variables were obtained from a computerized
database. Forty-three horses that had a
musculoskeletal injury and then failed to race or train
for 6 months (cases) and 334 noninjured horses from
the same race in which a horse was injured (controls)
were compared regarding risk factors.
Results—Overall, 98% of race starts were associated
with aluminum shoes, 85% with toe grabs, 32% with
pads, and 12% with rims on forelimb horseshoes.
Among 43 horses with musculoskeletal injury, sex
(geldings), an extended interval since last race, and
reduced exercise during the 30 or 60 days preceding
injury were risk factors for catastrophic injury. Odds
of injury in racehorses with toe grabs on front shoes
were 1.5 times the odds of injury in horses without
toe grabs, but this association was not significant
(95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 4.1).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that horses that return to racing after an extended
period of reduced exercise are at high risk of catastrophic
musculoskeletal injury. Results regarding the
use of toe grabs as a possible risk factor for catastrophic
injury were inconclusive because the probability
of declaring (in error) that use of toe grabs was
associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal
injury (eg, odds ratio > 1.0) was 38%. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1314–1320)
OBJECTIVE To compare pursestring, Witzel (seromuscular inversion), and seromuscular incision jejunostomy tube placement techniques in vitro.
SAMPLE Jejunal specimens from 10 dogs.
PROCEDURES Jejunal segments (50 cm) were harvested immediately prior to euthanasia from 10 mixed-breed dogs Specimens were harvested with the orad and aborad ends clamped and stored in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution–soaked towels during instrumentation. Three jejunostomy tubes were placed via 3 techniques (pursestring, Witzel, and seromuscular incision), and 2 double lumen central venous catheters were placed at each intestinal end for luminal filling and leak testing. Intestinal luminal area was measured ultrasonographically with specimens suspended in a warm undyed saline solution bath with the intestinal lumen filled with dyed saline solution (intraluminal pressure, 6 mm Hg). Leak testing was performed by means of infusion of dyed saline solution (4 mL/min) until each jejunostomy site failed. Intestinal luminal area and leakage pressure were compared between the 3 tube placement techniques.
RESULTS The Witzel and seromuscular incision techniques decreased the intestinal luminal area measured at the tube insertion site, albeit nonsignificantly. For the seromuscular incision technique, a significant decrease in intestinal luminal area at the intraluminal site of measurement was found. For 2/30 specimens (1/10 pursestring and 1/10 seromuscular incision), failure occurred at pressures within the range of previously reported peak peristaltic pressure for dogs. Failure occurred at supraphysiologic peristaltic pressures for the remaining 28 specimens, including all 10 specimens for the Witzel technique.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this in vitro study, all specimens for the Witzel technique withstood physiologic peristaltic pressures during leak testing. Both tunneling techniques (Witzel and seromuscular incision) created a decrease in intestinal luminal area. Further investigation, including in vivo testing, is indicated to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.
Objective—To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training.
Procedures—Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA.
Results—Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.
Objective—To determine the effects of various presale radiographic findings for Thoroughbreds sold at a yearling sale on 2-year-old racing performance of those horses.
Procedures—Thoroughbreds offered for sale at a Thoroughbred sales facility in Kentucky were selected via a randomization procedure. Effects of various presale radiographic findings on the following measures of 2-year-old racing performance were determined: having started a race and having placed (ie, finished in first, second, or third place) in a race at least once, total amount of money earned, and amount of money earned per start.
Results—Of the 397 horses, 192 (48%) started in at least 1 race during the 2-year-old racing year. The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 1.78 times as great for horses with forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes as for horses without this finding (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 3.16). The odds of failure to start a race as a 2-year-old were 2.02 times as great for horses with hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments as for horses without this finding (95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 4.31), although this result was not significant. Radiographic findings did not have an effect on total amount of money earned, amount of money earned per start, or whether horses placed in a race.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Presale radiographic detection of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone osteophytes or enthesophytes or hind limb proximal phalanx osteochondral fragments in yearlings were associated with failure to start a race during the 2-year-old racing year in study horses.
Objective—To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) in a population of US dogs with influenza-like illness (ILI) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity.
Animals—1,268 pet and shelter dogs with ILI in 42 states.
Procedures—Serum samples collected from dogs from 2005 through June 2009 were tested for H3N8 CIV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Intrinsic factors (age, breed, and sex), extrinsic factors (dogs housed in a shelter facility, boarding kennel, or other setting), and geographic region (southwest, west, Midwest, southeast, and northeast) were compared between seropositive and seronegative dogs to identify variables associated with seropositivity.
Results—Most (750/1,268 [59%]) dogs in the study were from Colorado, Florida, or New York. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies against H3N8 CIV was 49% (618/1,268 dogs; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 51%). The annual prevalence of H3N8 CIV seropositivity increased from 2005 (44%) to 2006 (53%) and 2007 (62%), then decreased in 2008 (38%) and 2009 (15%). The likelihood of H3N8 CIV seropositivity was associated with geographic region (southeast during 2005, west and northeast during 2006 and 2007, and northeast during 2008) and exposure setting (dogs housed in a shelter facility or boarding kennel during 2005 and 2006).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested there is a need for continued surveillance for H3N8 CIV infection in dogs in the United States and that personnel in communal dog-housing facilities should formulate, implement, and evaluate biosecurity protocols to reduce the risk of CIV transmission among dogs.
Objective—To compare calving-to-conception intervals
among cows classified as nonlame, moderately
lame, or lame during the prebreeding postpartum
period and to examine the relationship between
severity of lameness and time to conception in cows
that were classified as lame.
Animals—499 Holstein cows.
Procedure—Cows in the prebreeding postpartum
period were classified as nonlame, moderately lame,
or lame by use of a 6-point locomotion scoring system.
Time to conception (days) was compared among
cows. A low, medium, or high cumulative locomotion
score was assigned to lame cows, and time to conception
among those cows was compared. Cows
classified as lame were examined on a tilt table for
diagnosis and treatment of lameness.
Results—154 (31%), 214 (43%), and 131 (26%) cows
were classified as nonlame, moderately lame, and
lame, respectively. Most cows classified as lame had
laminitis (54%) or disorders of the claw (33%).
Median time to conception was 36 to 50 days longer
in lame cows than in nonlame cows. Among lame
cows, the median time to conception was 66 days
longer in cows with high cumulative locomotion
scores than in cows with low scores.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Nonlame cows
became pregnant more quickly than lame cows. Lame
cows with low cumulative locomotion scores during the
prebreeding postpartum period became pregnant sooner
than lame cows with high scores. Early diagnosis and
intervention may mitigate the effects of lameness and
improve reproductive performance in lame dairy cows.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1284–1291)
Objective—To compare milk yield among cows classified
as nonlame, moderately lame, and lame and to
examine the relationship between severity of lameness
and milk yield in cows classified as lame during
the first 100 days after parturition.
Animals—465 Holstein cows.
Procedure—Cows were examined weekly during the
first 100 days after parturition and assigned a lameness
score by use of a 6-point locomotion scoring
system (ie, 0 to 5). Milk yield was compared among
cows classified as nonlame, moderately lame, and
lame. Among cows classified as lame (locomotion
score ≥ 4), milk yield was compared for cows with
low, medium, and high cumulative locomotion scores.
Cows classified as lame were further examined on a
tilt table for diagnosis and treatment of lameness.
Results—84 (18%), 212 (46%), and 169 (36%) cows
were classified as nonlame, moderately lame, and
lame, respectively. Among cows in their second or
later lactations, milk yield in lame cows was significantly
lower than that in moderately lame and nonlame
cows. In addition, among cows classified as
lame, milk yield was significantly lower in cows with
high locomotion scores during the first 100 days after
parturition, compared with cows with low scores.
Most (58%) cows classified as lame had laminitis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
a linear relationship between increasing degree
of lameness and decreasing milk yield among cows in
their second or later lactations. The locomotion scoring
system used in this study may be a useful management
tool that veterinarians and dairy farmers
could adopt for early detection of lameness in dairy
cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1292–1296)