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  • Author or Editor: Jorg M. Steiner x
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Abstract

Objective—To investigate postprandial changes in serum concentrations of unconjugated bile acids in healthy Beagles.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from dogs at regular intervals up to 8 hours after consumption of a meal. Serum concentrations of 5 unconjugated bile acids were determined at each time point, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring.

Results—Total serum unconjugated bile acid concentration was significantly increased, relative to baseline values, at 360, 420, and 480 minutes after feeding. Unconjugated cholic acid was significantly increased at 360, 420, and 480 minutes. The proportion of total unconjugated bile acids represented by cholic acid was significantly increased at 240 to 480 minutes. Deoxycholic acid was significantly increased at 360 and 420 minutes. Chenodeoxycholic acid was significantly increased at 360 to 480 minutes. Lithocholic acid was significantly increased at 180 minutes, whereas no significant changes in ursodeoxycholic acid were detected at any time point.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Healthy Beagles had significant increases in serum concentrations and changes in the profile of unconjugated bile acids after a meal. These increases persisted > 8 hours, indicating that prolonged withholding of food is necessary when to avoid the risk of a false-positive diagnosis when assessing serum unconjugated bile acid concentrations in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:789–793

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop and analytically validate a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantification of lactulose, rhamnose, xylose, 3-O-methylglucose, and sucrose in canine serum.

Sample Population—Pooled serum samples from 200 dogs.

Procedures—Serum samples spiked with various sugars were analyzed by use of GC-MS. The method was analytically validated by determination of dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, intra-assay variability, and interassay variability.

Results—Standard curves ranging from 0.5 to 500 mg/L for each sugar revealed a mean r 2 of 0.997. The lower detection limit was 0.03 mg/L for lactulose, rhamnose, xylose, and methylglucose and 0.12 mg/L for sucrose. The observed-to-expected ratios for dilutional parallelism had a mean ± SD of 105.6 ± 25.4% at dilutions of 1:2, 1:4, and 1:8. Analytic recoveries for the GC-MS assays of sugars ranged from 92.1% to 124.7% (mean ± SD, 106.2 ± 13.0%). Intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 6.8% to 12.9% for lactulose, 7.1% to 12.8% for rhamnose, 7.2% to 11.2% for xylose, 8.9% to 11.5% for methylglucose, and 8.9% to 12.0% for sucrose. Interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 7.0% to 11.5% for lactulose, 6.4% to 9.4% for rhamnose, 6.8% to 13.2% for xylose, 7.0% to 15.9% for methylglucose, and 5.5% to 9.4% for sucrose.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The GC-MS method described here was accurate, precise, and reproducible for the simultaneous measurement of sugar probes in canine serum.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate the relationship between plasma ammonia concentration and severity of hepatic encephalopathy and determine whether factors that precipitate hepatic encephalopathy in humans are associated with the presence of clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs previously treated for the disease.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—118 dogs with hepatic encephalopathy.

Procedures—The medical records database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched for records of dogs in which hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed between October 1, 1991, and September 1, 2014. Hepatic encephalopathy severity was graded on a 5-point scale, and the correlation between disease severity and plasma ammonia concentration was determined. Respective associations between hepatic encephalopathy and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, dietary indiscretion, constipation, furosemide treatment, azotemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, alkalosis, and hyperammonemia were assessed by Fisher exact tests followed by multivariable logistic regression.

Results—Severity of hepatic encephalopathy at hospital admission was not significantly correlated with plasma ammonia concentration. Dogs treated for hepatic encephalopathy prior to hospital admission were significantly less likely to have clinical signs of the disease at hospital admission, compared with dogs that were not treated for the disease (OR, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.78). None of the putative precipitating factors for hepatic encephalopathy were significantly associated with the presence of clinical signs of the disease at hospital admission.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that hepatic encephalopathy treatment alleviated clinical signs of the disease. Further investigation is necessary to identify precipitating factors for hepatic encephalopathy in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:176–183)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Pancreatitis commonly occurs in humans, dogs, and cats. For both veterinary and human health-care professionals, measurement of serum pancreatic lipase concentration or activity provides useful support for a diagnosis of pancreatitis. In this Currents in One Health manuscript, we will discuss commonly used lipase assays in veterinary medicine, namely catalytic colorimetric and immunological lipase assays. We highlight potential diagnostic pitfalls associated with analytical specificity, assay validation, and sample condition interferences. Catalytic lipase assays may detect extrapancreatic lipases. In addition, we propose a decision tree for interpretation of lipase assays in the context of a clinical patient.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that intestinal pathologic changes are often concurrent with gastric pathologic changes in dogs and to characterize the historical, physical, clinicopathologic, imaging, and endoscopic findings in dogs with gastric histopathologic abnormalities.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—67 dogs with gastric histopathologic abnormalities.

Procedures—Medical records from dogs that had undergone gastrotomy, gastroduodenoscopy, or gastroscopy between September 2002 and September 2007 were identified. Dogs were included in the study when histopathologic abnormalities were detected during evaluation of gastric tissue sections. History, clinical examination findings, results of diagnostic tests, diagnoses, treatments, and outcome were recorded for each dog.

Results—67 dogs with gastric histopathologic abnormalities were included in the study. The most frequent clinical sign recorded was vomiting (36/67 [53.7%] dogs). The most common biochemical abnormality recorded was panhypoproteinemia (27/64 [42.2%] dogs). Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was the most frequent histopathologic finding recorded (34/67 [50.7%] dogs). For dogs in which both intestinal biopsy specimens and gastric biopsy specimens were collected, concurrent pathologic changes were recorded in 43 of 60 (71.7%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that intestinal pathologic changes are commonly concurrent in dogs with gastric pathologic changes. This supports the practice of collecting both gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens every time gastroduodenoscopy is performed. Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was the most commonly recorded gastric histopathologic finding and was often of minimal or mild severity.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop and validate a radioimmunoassay for feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI).

Procedure

A double antibody radioimmunoassay for determination of fTLI was developed, using feline trypsin purified from feline pancreatic tissue, antiserum against feline trypsin raised in New Zealand White rabbits, and a commercially available precipitation solution. This assay was validated by determining detection limit, linearity, accuracy, and intra- and interassay variabilities. A control range was determined from samples of 21 clinically normal cats.

Results

The detection limit for fTLI in this assay was 1.9 μg/L. The linearity of the assay was evaluated by testing dilutional parallelism. Observed/expected values ranged between 95 and 127%. The accuracy of the assay was tested by measuring recovery of added trypsin. Observed/expected values ranged from 99 to 114%. Intra-assay variability ranged between 3.0 and 9.4%, and interassay variability ranged between 4.0 and 8.2%. The control range for serum fTLI was determined to be 17.1 to 48.6 μg/L.

Conclusion

The assay for fTLI described here is sensitive, linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible.

Clinical Relevance

This assay may be of use for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic diseases in cats. Preliminary results of such research have been promising, and further clinical studies are in progress. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1417–1420)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop and validate an ELISA for quantitative analysis of feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI).

Sample Population—Purified feline cationic trypsin (fCT) and rabbit anti-fCT antiserum; blood samples from 63 healthy cats.

Procedures—A sandwich capture ELISA was developed, using anti-fCT antiserum purified by affinity chromatography that underwent biotinylation. Purified fCT was used for standards. The assay was validated by determination of sensitivity, working range, linearity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. A reference range was established by assaying serum samples from the 63 healthy cats.

Results—Sensitivity was 1.23 µg/L; working range was 2 to 567 µg/L. Ratios of observed versus expected results for 4 samples tested at various dilutions ranged from 90.0 to 120.7%. Ratios of observed versus expected results for 5 samples spiked with various concentrations of fCT ranged from 82.0 to 101.8%. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variability ranged from 9.9 to 11.1% and from 10.2 to 21.7%, respectively. The reference range for serum fTLI measured with this ELISA was 12 to 82 µg/L.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that an ELISA can be used to measure serum fTLI in cats. The ELISA was sufficiently sensitive, linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible for clinical use. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:620–623)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with multicentric lymphoma and to investigate any relationship between serum cobalamin concentration and disease outcome.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—58 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedures—Serum cobalamin concentrations were measured in 58 dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Clinical signs, stage, and immunophenotype for dogs with hypocobalaminemia were compared with those for dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations above the lower end of the reference range. Survival times for dogs undergoing a cyclic multidrug chemotherapy protocol (n = 53) were similarly compared. Serum cobalamin concentrations for treated dogs that died or were euthanized before day 60 were compared with those of dogs still alive at day 60.

Results—Serum cobalamin concentrations ranged from < 150 to 1,813 ng/L, with a median concentration of 401 ng/L. Nine of the 58 (16%) dogs had hypocobalaminemia (serum cobalamin concentration < 252 ng/L). Three of 9 dogs with hypocobalaminemia survived to at least day 60, compared with 40 of 44 (91%) dogs without hypocobalaminemia (serum cobalamin concentration ≥ 252 ng/L). Ten (10/53 [19%]) dogs undergoing a cyclic multidrug chemotherapy protocol died before day 60, and the median serum cobalamin concentration for these dogs (232 ng/L) was significantly lower than for those still alive at the end point of the study (556 ng/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypocobalaminemia was relatively uncommon in this population of dogs with multicentric lymphoma, but was associated with a poor outcome. Serum cobalamin concentrations may provide prognostic information in dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that exchange of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) for long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) in the diet of dogs with well-managed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) changes serum biochemical variables and to subjectively assess the well-being of dogs with EPI in response to experimental diets.

Animals—21 dogs with EPI and 6 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—The effects of 3 diets containing 0%, 16%, or 35% of the total fat content as MCTs were examined in a randomized controlled double-blind crossover trial. The 3 diets were fed for 12 weeks each. Dietary effects were evaluated by both subjective and objective variables.

Results—Analysis of subjective data revealed no significant difference in appetite, attitude, drinking behavior, volume of feces, defecation frequency, color of feces, consistency of feces, flatulence, or borborygmus among dogs fed the 3 experimental diets. A high MCT content in the diet was associated with significantly higher serum vitamin E, cholesterol, triglyceride, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations in dogs with EPI and significantly higher serum vitamin E concentrations in control dogs, compared with low MCT content. High MCT content in the diet was also associated with significantly lower concentrations of serum linoleic acid (C18:2[n-6]) in dogs with EPI and in control dogs, compared with low MCT content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A high MCT content in the diet leads to increases in serum concentrations of cholesterol and certain fat-soluble vitamins. However, no effect was found on the subjective well-being of the dogs as evaluated by their owners. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1293–1302)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in serum and CSF and determine relationships between MMP activity and severity of disease, duration of clinical signs, and duration of hospitalization in dogs with acute intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).

Animals—35 dogs with acute IVDD and 8 clinically normal control dogs.

Procedure—CSF and serum were collected from affected and control dogs. Zymography was used to detect MMP-9.

Results—Activity of MMP-9 in CSF was detected in 6 of 35 dogs with IVDD; activity was significantly more common in dogs with duration of signs < 24 hours. Paraplegic dogs were more likely to have MMP-9 activity in the CSF than non-paraplegic dogs. No significant difference in hospitalization time was detected in dogs with IVDD between those with and without activity of MMP-9 in the CSF. Serum MMP-9 was detected more frequently in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data were consistent with results of experimental rodent spinal cord injury studies that indicate that MMP-9 is expressed early during secondary injury.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research