Objective—To compare quantitative densitometric
computed tomography (CT), morphometric, and histologic
data of normal lungs in dogs with similar parameters
obtained after induction of an acute inflammatory
response and determine whether CT densitometry
correlated with histopathologic changes.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.
Procedure—After initial CT, 1 mL of 0.1M hydrochloric
acid (HCl) and 3 mL of autologous blood were instilled
into the right middle (RM) and caudal segment of the
left cranial (LCCd) lung lobes, respectively. Immediately
and 24 hours after instillation, CT was repeated. At 24
hours, dogs were euthanatized and lungs were fixed
and sampled for morphometric and histologic evaluation.
The CT data were compared with lung morphology
and morphometry by use of unpaired t tests.
Comparison with lungs from control dogs was performed
using Spearman rank correlation coefficients.
Results—Mean Hounsfield units (HU) from control
and baseline HU from experimental dogs were identical.
Immediately after instillation of HCl or blood, there
was increased attenuation in both lobes. Autologous
blood initially induced severe changes that almost
completely resolved at 24 hours; HCl induced severe
changes at 24 hours. Significant increases in percentage
of parenchymal airspace and alveolar diameter
resulted in decreased surface area-to-volume ratio in
lobes receiving HCl. Histologic scores were significantly
higher in the RM lobe, compared with controls.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Computed
tomography attenuation correlated well with histomorphometry
and histologic findings in this model.
Lung lesions after autologous blood were transient
and of limited severity. Lesions induced by HCl were
severe; alterations in morphometric and histologic
parameters were reflected in CT attenuation measurements.
(Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1114–1123)
Objective—To compare the iridocorneal angle (ICA) and angle opening distance (AOD) in dogs with cataractous and noncataractous lenses; evaluate cataractous eyes ultrasono-graphically for association of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) with the ICA, AOD, and postoperative echogenic anterior chamber debris; and evaluate intraobserver reliability associated with ICA and AOD measurements.
Animals—56 dogs with 102 cataracts, and 23 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed on 102 eyes of 56 dogs before and after cataract surgery and on 46 nondilated and dilated eyes of 23 clinically normal dogs. Cataract stage, ICA, AOD, and association with POH were assessed.
Results—Cataract stage and ICA or AOD were not significantly associated; however, ICA and AOD typically decreased with increasing cataract maturity. Before and after pupillary dilation, AODs were significantly smaller in cataractous eyes than in noncataractous eyes. Before surgery, ICA and AOD in eyes without pupillary dilation were significantly associated with POH. At > 13°, odds of developing POH increased by 11% for each degree increase in the ICA. Postoperative anterior chamber debris was not associated with POH. Coefficient of variation for repeated measurements was 10% for the ICA and 9.5% for the AOD, suggesting good intraobserver reliability.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, dogs with larger ICA and AOD measurements before surgery were at greater risk of developing POH. This information may be useful for future studies to determine whether preventative treatment for POH administered prior to surgery may be beneficial.
Objective—To characterize and purify covalent complexes of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and haptoglobin released by bovine granulocytes in vitro.
Sample Population—Blood samples obtained from healthy cows and cows with acute and chronic inflammation to obtain WBCs and sera.
Procedures—WBCs were isolated by differential centrifugation, hypotonic lysis of RBCs, and degranulated by stimulation with phorbol ester (20 ng/mL). Cell-conditioned medium was subjected to affinity and gel chromatography and purified proteins subjected to SDS- PAGE gelatin zymography, western blot analysis, Coomassie blue staining, and peptide mass spectrometry for protein identification. Sera of cows hospitalized for acute and chronic septic conditions and of clinically normal cows were analyzed with similar methods.
Results—Matrix metalloproteinase-9 was released from neutrophils in vitro and migrated to a molecular mass of approximately 220 kd (prodimer), approximately 105 kd (promonomer), and > 220 kd (high–molecular mass complexes). These high–molecular mass complexes were composed of α- and β-haptoglobin and MMP-9 (ratio13:13:1). Complexes of MMP-9 and haptoglobin had biochemical properties of both its protein constituents (ie, enzymatic activity toward gelatin and hemoglobin binding). Complexes of MMP-9 and haptoglobin were also detected in sera of cows with acute inflammation, but not in clinically normal cows or cows with chronic disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A fraction of neutrophil MMP-9 is released in complex with haptoglobin. The complex is present in granules and retains biological activity of its components. Detection of the complex in serum may provide an indicator of acute inflammation.
To radiographically compare patellar ligament length (PLL) in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture at preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up evaluations.
105 dogs that underwent TPLO for unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture at a referral veterinary hospital from October 1, 2008, through November 30, 2017.
Medical records were reviewed to obtain information on dog signalment, surgical procedure, and radiographically measured PLL at preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up evaluations.
Dogs undergoing TPLO had a shorter PLL at the postoperative and follow-up evaluations, compared with the PLL at the preoperative evaluation. Mean ± SD overall unadjusted PLL decreased significantly by 2.3 ± 3.4% between the preoperative and postoperative evaluation and by 2.8 ± 3.9% between the preoperative and follow-up evaluation. The PLL did not differ significantly between the postoperative and follow-up evaluation; mean PLL decreased by 0.4 ± 3.8% between the postoperative and follow-up evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The PLL was shorter after TPLO in dogs, which was similar to changes observed for humans after high tibial osteotomy procedures. Further evaluation of clinical assessments, joint mobility, ultrasonographic assessments, and kinematic results are needed to determine the relevance of the PLL and whether a decrease in ligament length results in decreased mobility and persistent lameness in dogs, as has been reported for humans.
Objective—To evaluate transurethral cystoscopy and
excretory urography for diagnosis of ectopic ureter in
female dogs and identify concurrent urogenital abnormalities.
Animals—25 female dogs.
Procedure—Medical records of female dogs that
underwent transurethral cystoscopy, excretory urography,
and ventral cystotomy were reviewed for signalment,
history, physical examination findings,
results of bacteriologic culture of urine, and surgical
findings. Videotapes of transurethral cystoscopy and
radiographic studies were reviewed systematically
without knowledge of surgical findings.
Results—Ectopic ureters were diagnosed in 24 of 25
(96%) of the dogs, bilaterally in 22 of 24 (91.6%) dogs.
Cystoscopic evaluation yielded a correct diagnosis in all
dogs when results of ventral cystotomy were used as
the diagnostic standard. Cystoscopic evaluation identified
a terminal ureteral opening for all ureters. Urethral
fenestrations, troughs, striping, and tenting were identified.
Abnormalities of the vestibule were identified in all
examinations available for review (24/25). The paramesonephric
septal remnant and its association with
ectopic ureters were identified and characterized by cystoscopy.
Radiographic findings were discordant with
surgical findings and correctly identified 36 of 46 (78.2%)
ectopic ureters and 2 of 4 normal ureters. Hydroureter
and renal abnormalities were associated with distal urethral
ectopic ureters on radiographic evaluations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transurethral
cystoscopy was accurate and minimally invasive for identification
and classification of ectopic ureters in dogs.
Contrast radiography had limitations in diagnosis of
ectopic ureters. Cystoscopic findings and associated
vaginal and vestibular abnormalities support abnormal
embryologic development in the pathogenesis of ectopic
ureters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:475–481)
Objective—To evaluate and correlate patterns of subchondral bone density and articular cartilage degeneration (derived by use of gross, histologic, and computed tomographic [CT] examinations) in equine third metacarpal condyles with and without osteoarthritis.
Sample Population—8 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (n = 4 horses) without osteoarthritis and 6 osteoarthritis-affected MCP joints (4).
Procedures—Horses were euthanized. The third metacarpal condyles of the joints were examined grossly and via CT (3 slice images/condyle). For 6 condylar zones, mean bone density and pattern of density distribution were determined. Data for osteoarthritis-affected and control joints were compared. Histomorphometric point count analyses identified areas of bone density for comparison with CT density measurements.
Results—Osteoarthritis-affected condyles had heterogeneous subchondral bone with focal resorptive lesions and patterned sclerosis, whereas control condyles had symmetric bone density distribution. In osteoarthritis-affected condyles, bone density determined via gray scale image density analysis was greater (dorsal and medial pattern), compared with control condyles, and differed among zones because of resorption and sclerosis. With regard to bone density in osteoarthritis-affected condyles, histologic findings correlated with CT images, and bone lesions were significantly correlated with cartilage lesions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, heterogeneous distribution and greater subchondral bone density were characteristic of osteoarthritis-affected condyles, compared with control condyles. Subchondral bone lesions correlated with overlying cartilage lesions in osteoarthritis-affected MCP joints. Identification of CT image characteristics appears to predict the presence of a cartilage lesion in MCP joints of horses with osteoarthritis.
To evaluate the radiographic thickness of the dorsal hoof wall in normal draft horse feet.
33 adult draft horses with no history of laminitis, no clinically obvious lameness, and visibly unremarkable front feet were included.
This was a prospective, descriptive study of clinically normal draft horses’ front feet. Lateromedial radiographs were acquired of the front feet. A ratio of the dorsal hoof wall thickness to the length of the distal phalanx (DHWP3 ratio) was calculated.
The dorsal hoof wall thickness to length of the distal phalanx was calculated as 0.33 ± 0.03 (range of 0.28 to 0.39) in this population of draft horses.
With very few exceptions, the heterogeneous population of draft horses evaluated in this study had a DHWP3 ratio greater than previously published values in lighter breeds (< 0.30).
Objective—To determine maximum extrarenal plasma
clearance of technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine
(99mTc–MAG3) and maximum extrarenal
hepatic uptake of 99mTc–MAG3 in cats.
Animals—6 clinically normal adult cats.
Procedure—Simultaneously, baseline plasma clearance
and camera-based uptake of 99mTc–MAG3 were
determined in anesthetized cats. Double exponential
curves were fitted to plasma clearance data. Injected
dose was divided by area under the curve and body
weight to determine 99mTc–MAG3 clearance. Regions
of interest were drawn around kidneys and liver, and
percentage dose uptake was determined 1 to 3 minutes
after injection. After bilateral nephrectomy,
simultaneous extrarenal plasma clearance and camera-
based hepatic uptake of 99mTc–MAG3 were evaluated
in each cat.
Results—Mean ± SD baseline plasma clearance and
extrarenal clearance were 5.29 ± 0.77 and 0.84 ± 0.47
mL/min/kg, respectively. Mean extrarenal clearance
(as a percentage of baseline plasma clearance) was
16.06 ± 7.64%. For right, left, and both kidneys, mean
percentage dose uptake was 9.42 ± 2.58, 9.37 ± 0.86,
and 18.79 ± 2.47%, respectively. Mean hepatic percentage
dose uptake before and after nephrectomy
was 12.95 ± 0.93 and 21.47 ± 2.00%, respectively.
Mean percentage change of hepatic uptake after
nephrectomy was 166.89 ± 23.19%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats,
extrarenal clearance of 99mTc–MAG3 is higher than that
of other species; therefore, 99mTc–MAG3 is not useful
for estimation of renal function in felids. Evaluation of
renal function in cats may be more accurate via camera-
based versus plasma clearance-based methods
because camera-based studies can discriminate specific
organs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1076–1080)