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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the relative contributions of voltage-gated and capacitative Ca2+ entry to agonist-induced contractions of equine laminar arteries and veins.

Animals—16 adult mixed-breed horses.

Procedures—Laminar arteries and veins were isolated and mounted on small vessel myographs for the measurement of isometric tension. Concentration-response curves were obtained for the vasoconstrictor agonists phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), prostaglandin F (PGF), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) either in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel inhibitor diltiazem or the putative inhibitor of capacitative Ca2+ entry, trifluoromethylphenylimidazole.

Results—In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, maximal responses of veins to 5-HT, phenylephrine, ET-1 and PGF were reduced by 80%, 50%, 50%, and 45%, respectively; responses of arteries to 5-HT, phenylephrine, and ET-1 were reduced by 95%, 90%, and 20%, respectively. Although diltiazem did not affect the maximal responses of veins to any agonist, responses of arteries to 5-HT, phenylephrine, and ET-1 were reduced by 40%, 50%, and 27%, respectively. Trifluoromethylphenylimidazole did not affect maximal responses of veins, but did reduce their contractile responses to low concentrations of ET-1 and PGF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to laminar vessel contractile responses differs between arteries and veins and also between contractile agonists, voltage-gated Ca2+ entry is more predominant in laminar arteries than in veins, and capacitative Ca2+ entry has a minor role in agonist-induced contractile responses of laminar veins.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the anesthetic, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic effects of 4 IV anesthetic regimens in Thoroughbred horses recuperating from a brief period of maximal exercise.

Animals—6 adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill. Each horse ran 4 simulated races, with a minimum of 14 days between races. Races were run at a treadmill speed that caused horses to exercise at 120% of their maximal oxygen consumption. Horses ran until fatigued or for a maximum of 2 minutes. Two minutes after exercise, horses received a combination of xylazine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg of body weight) and acepromazine maleate (0.04 mg/kg) IV. Five minutes after exercise, horses received 1 of the following 4 IV anesthetic regimens: ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg); ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.1 mg/kg); tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride (1 mg/kg); and guaifenesin (50 mg/kg) and thiopental sodium (5 mg/kg). Treatments were randomized. Cardiopulmonary indices were measured, and samples of blood were collected before and at specific times for 90 minutes after each race.

Results—Each regimen induced lateral recumbency. The quality of induction and anesthesia after ketamine administration was significantly worse than after other regimens, and the duration of anesthesia was significantly shorter. Time to lateral recumbency was significantly longer after ketamine or guaifenesinthiopental administration than after ketaminediazepam or tiletamine-zolazepam administration. Arterial blood pressures after guaifenesin-thiopental administration were significantly lower than after the other regimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia can be safely induced in sedated horses immediately after maximal exercise. Ketamine-diazepam and tiletamine- zolazepam induced good quality anesthesia with acceptable perturbations in cardiopulmonary and metabolic indices. Ketamine alone and guaifenesinthiopental regimens are not recommended. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1545–1552)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify apoptosis in equine intestines and determine whether apoptosis is associated with gastrointestinal tract disease or a specific tissue layer of intestine.

Animals—38 horses that underwent surgery or were euthanatized for small or large intestine obstruction, strangulation, or distension and 9 control horses euthanatized for reasons other than gastrointestinal tract disease or systemic disease.

Procedure—Specimens were collected at surgery from intestine involved in the primary lesion and distant to the primary lesion site or at necropsy from several sites including the primary lesion site. Histologic tissue sections were stained with H&E, and apoptosis was detected by use of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling technique. The number of apoptotic cells per hpf was counted in the mucosa, circular muscle, longitudinal muscle, and serosa.

Results—Apoptotic nuclei were seen in all layers of intestine. An increased number of apoptotic cells was found in the circular muscle of the intestine from horses with simple obstruction, compared with strangulating obstruction or healthy intestine. Intestine distant from a primary strangulating lesion had higher numbers of apoptotic cells than did intestine distant from a simple obstructive lesion or intestine taken at the site of a strangulating or simple obstructive lesion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intestine from horses with obstructing or strangulating lesions in the small intestine and large colon had high numbers of apoptotic cells possibly because of ischemic cell injury and subsequent inflammation. Whether substantial apoptosis affects intestinal function is not yet known. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:982–988)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and safety for transdermal (TD) and oral administration of fluoxetine hydrochloride to healthy cats.

Animals—12 healthy mixed-breed sexually intact 1- to 4-year-old purpose-bred cats.

Procedure—A single-dose pharmacokinetic study involving 3 groups of 4 cats each was conducted in parallel. Fluoxetine in a formulation of pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO gel) was applied to the hairless portion of the pinnae of cats at 2 dosages (5 or 10 mg/kg), or it was administered orally in capsules at a dosage of 1 mg/kg. Plasma samples were obtained and submitted for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry- mass spectrometry analysis of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine.

Results—Peak fluoxetine concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to Cmax longer for TD administration versus oral administration. Relative bioavailability of each dose administered via the TD route was 10% of the value for oral administration of the drug. Mean plasma elimination half-life after oral administration was 47 and 55 hours for fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provides evidence that fluoxetine in a 15% (wt:vol) PLO gel formulation can be absorbed through the skin of cats into the systemic circulation. However, the relative bioavailability for TD administration is approximately only 10% of that for the oral route of administration. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:994–998)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To provide insights into the role of prostaglandin F (PGF) in the developmental stages of laminitis induced in horses by ingestion of black walnut heartwood extract (BWHE).

Sample Population—10 adult mixed-breed horses.

Procedures—Horses were separated into 2 groups and were euthanatized at 12 hours after placebo (water) administration (control horses) or after BWHE administration and development of Obel grade 1 laminitis. Blood samples were obtained to determine plasma PGF concentrations hourly for the first 4 hours and subsequently every 2 hours after substance administration. Laminar arteries and veins were isolated, and responses to increasing concentrations of PGF were measured before and after preincubation of blood vessels with prostanoid and thromboxane receptor antagonists SQ 29,548, SC-19220, and AH 6809.

Results—Plasma PGF concentrations increased in horses given BWHE; the WBC count decreased concurrently. In control horses, PGF was a potent contractile agonist for laminar veins but not for laminar arteries. In horses given BWHE, PGF was similarly selective for laminar veins; however, the magnitude of PGF-induced venoconstriction was less than that in control horses. After preincubation with SQ 29,548, laminar veins from control horses responded to PGF with a small degree of dilation, whereas laminar veins from horses given BWHE did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PGF may play a role in the inflammatory and vascular dysfunction associated with the prodromal stages of laminitis. Prostanoids such as PGF may be viable targets for the prevention of acute laminitis in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine sedative, cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, and a combination of xylazine and acepromazine administered IV at twice the standard doses in Thoroughbred horses recuperating from a brief period of maximal exercise.

Animals

6 adult Thoroughbreds,

Procedure

Horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill to establish a uniform level of fitness. Each horse ran 4 simulated races, with a minimum of 14 days between races. Simulated races were run at a treadmill speed that caused horses to exercise at 120% of their maximal oxygen consumption. Horses ran until they were fatigued or for a maximum of 2 minutes. One minute after the end of exercise, horses were treated IV with xylazine (2.2 mg/kg of body weight), detomidine (0.04 mg/kg), a combination of xylazine (2.2 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Treatments were randomized so that each horse received each treatment once, in random order. Cardiopulmonary indices were measured, and samples of arterial and venous blood were collected immediately before and at specific times for 90 minutes after the end of each race.

Results

All sedatives produced effective sedation. The cardiopulmonary depression that was induced was qualitatively similar to that induced by administration of these sedatives to resting horses and was not severe. Sedative administration after exercise prolonged the exercise-induced increase in body temperature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Administration of xylazine, detomidine, or a combination of xylazine-acepromazine at twice the standard doses produced safe and effective sedation in horses that had just undergone a brief, intense bout of exercise. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1271–1279)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine and compare hematologic reference intervals for hybrid striped bass from different culture systems and for 2 types of hybrid.

Design

Observational comparison study.

Animals

Clinically normal sunshine bass (reciprocal hybrid striped bass, female Morone chrysops × male M saxatilis) raised in high-density recirculating systems, sunshine bass raised in tanks with biofilters, and palmetto bass (original hybrid striped bass, female M saxatilis × male M chrysops) raised in tanks with biofilters.

Procedure

Hematologic reference intervals were determined for fish from the different production systems, following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Reference intervals from the 3 groups were compared.

Results

Reference intervals were significantly different between sunshine bass in the 2 culture systems and between sunshine and palmetto bass. Many of the differences were slight, but notable differences were observed. Sunshine bass in recirculating systems had higher total leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts than did either hybrid in tanks. Palmetto bass had a greater number of neutrophils than monocytes, whereas sunshine bass had more monocytes than neutrophils. Additionally, palmetto bass had a lower PCV and hemoglobin value than did either group of sunshine bass.

Conclusions

Separate reference intervals should be developed for hybrid striped bass in different culture systems and for different types of hybrids.

Clinical Relevance

Determining reference intervals for hybrid striped bass provides a tool to assess the health status of these fish. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:618–623)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine and compare biochemical reference intervals for sunshine bass (hybrid striped bass) from 3 culture systems.

Design

Observational comparison study.

Animals

Clinically normal sunshine bass (reciprocal hybrid striped bass, female Morone chrysops × male M saxatilis) raised in high-density recirculating systems (80 g/L), low-density tanks (5 g/L) with biofilters, and cages (70 g/L) in a fresh water pond.

Procedure

Biochemical reference intervals were determined for fish from the different production systems following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Reference intervals from the 3 groups were compared.

Results

Reference intervals were significantly different between sunshine bass in the various culture systems. Though most of the differences in reference intervals were minor, fish in the high-density recirculating system had higher concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, and phosphorus, and lower chloride values. There were no significant differences in glucose concentrations among the 3 groups of fish, and no differences in cortisol concentrations between fish in tanks and cages.

Conclusions

Separate reference intervals should be developed for hybrid striped bass in different culture systems.

Clinical Relevance

Determining biochemical reference intervals for hybrid striped bass provides a tool to assess the health status of these fish. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:624–627)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research