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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 6-month-old sexually intact male Clumber Spaniel was evaluated because of small stature, recurrent dermatitis of the head, and progressive pigmentary hepatopathy.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Clinicopathologic findings included nonanemic hypochromic microcytosis, hypocholesterolemia, persistently high serum liver enzyme activities, and anicteric hyperbilirubinemia. Histologic examination of liver biopsy specimens collected when the dog was 6 months and 2 years of age revealed expansion and bridging of portal tracts, occasional centrilobular parenchymal collapse, scattered lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, and dark red to brown pigment within large aggregates of macrophages, engorged bile canaliculi, and hepatocytes. The pigment failed to stain for the presence of iron, copper, bile, and glycoprotein and, when examined with polarized microscopy, emitted a yellow to green birefringence with occasional Maltese cross configurations. Further analyses confirmed marked porphyrin accumulation in blood, urine, feces, and liver tissue; protoporphyrin accumulation in RBCs and liver tissue; and a signature porphyrin profile and fluorescence peak consistent with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Advanced protoporphyric hepatopathy was diagnosed. The chronic dermatopathy was presumed to reflect protoporphyric photosensitivity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Management was focused on avoiding conditions known to induce heme synthesis and catabolism, administrating ursodeoxycholic acid and antioxidants S-adenosylmethionine and vitamin E, and avoiding sunlight exposure. At follow-up at 4 years of age, the dog was stable without evidence of jaundice but with probable persistent erythropoietic protoporphyria–related solar dermatopathy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clinical and histologic features of congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria and resultant protoporphyric hepatopathy, the diagnosis, and the successful management of a dog with these conditions over 4 years were described. Veterinarians should consider porphyric syndromes when unusual pigmentary hepatopathies are encountered.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate 3 methods for measuring urine bile acids (UBA) and compare their diagnostic performance with that of the serum bile acids (SBA) test and other routine screening tests in dogs with hepatic disorders.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 healthy dogs, 102 dogs with hepatic disorders, and 9 dogs with clinical signs of hepatic disorders that were found to have nonhepatic disorders.

Procedures—Blood and urine samples were collected from sick dogs and healthy dogs for serum biochemical analyses, and determination of concentrations of SBA and UBA. Urine samples were obtained from 15 healthy dogs to establish an upper cutoff value for UBA concentrations. The UBA were measured by use of a quantitative-linked enzymatic colorimetric method. Three analytical modifications were evaluated; 1 quantified only urine sulfated bile acids (USBA), 1 only urine nonsulfated bile acids (UNSBA), and 1 quantified both (USBA plus UNSBA). The UBA values were standardized with the urine creatinine concentration.

Results—The UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio and USBA plus UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio tests had the best diagnostic performance of the UBA tests; each had a substantially higher specificity, slightly higher positive predictive value, slightly lower negative predictive value, and lower sensitivity than the SBA test. These UBA-to-creatinine values were positively correlated with SBA values. The USBA-to-creatinine ratio had poor sensitivity, indicating a low rate of bile acid sulfation in dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The UBA can be measured in dogs with sufficient repeatability and accuracy for clinical application. The UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio and USBA plus UNSBA-to-creatinine ratio identified dogs with hepatic disorders nearly as well as the SBA test. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222: 1368–1375)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the association between peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) or congenital central diaphragmatic hernia (CCDH) and ductal plate malformations (DPMs) in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

18 dogs and 18 cats with PPDH or CCDH and 19 dogs and 18 cats without PPDH or CCDH.

PROCEDURES

Evaluation of clinical details verified PPDH or CCDH and survival times. Histologic features of nonherniated liver samples were used to categorize DPM. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-19 distinguished bile duct profiles per portal tract and for Ki-67–assessed cholangiocyte proliferation. Histologic features of herniated liver samples from PPDH or CCDH were compared with those of pathological controls (traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, n = 6; liver lobe torsion, 6; ischemic hepatopathy, 2).

RESULTS

DPM occurred in 13 of 18 dogs with the proliferative-like phenotype predominating and in 15 of 18 cats with evenly distributed proliferative-like and Caroli phenotypes. Congenital hepatic fibrosis DPM was noted in 3 dogs and 2 cats and renal DPM in 3 dogs and 3 cats. No signalment, clinical signs, or clinicopathologic features discriminated DPM. Kaplan Meier survival curves were similar in dogs and cats. Bile duct profiles per portal tract in dogs (median, 5.0; range, 1.4 to 100.8) and cats (6.6; 1.9 to 11.0) with congenital diaphragmatic hernias significantly exceeded those in healthy dogs (1.4; 1.2 to 1.6) and cats (2.3; 1.7 to 2.6). Animals with DPM lacked active cholangiocyte proliferation. Histologic features characterizing malformative bile duct profiles yet without biliary proliferation were preserved in herniated liver lobes in animals with DPM.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

DPM was strongly associated with PPDH and CCDH. Because DPM can impact health, awareness of its coexistence with PPDH or CCDH should prompt biopsy of nonherniated liver tissue during surgical correction of PPDH and CCDH.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk, clinical features, and treatment responses for gallbladder disorders in Shetland Sheepdogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—38 Shetland Sheepdogs with gallbladder disease.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, physical findings, laboratory results, imaging features, coexistent illnesses, histologic findings, treatments, and survival rates.

Results—Mature dogs with gastrointestinal signs were predisposed (odds ratio, 7.2) to gallbladder disorders. Gallbladder mucocele was confirmed in 25 dogs. Concurrent problems included pancreatitis, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid excess, hypothyroidism, protein-losing nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, and gallbladder dysmotility. Mortality rate was 68% with and 32% without bile peritonitis. Nonsurvivors had high WBC and neutrophil count and low potassium concentration. Although preprandial hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum liver enzyme activities were common, gallbladder disease was serendipitously discovered in 11 of 38 dogs. Histologic examination (n = 20 dogs) revealed gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia in 20 dogs, cholecystitis in 16, periportal hepatitis in 9, and vacuolar hepatopathy in 7. Surgery included cholecystectomy (n = 17) and cholecystoenterostomy (4). In 1 hyperlipidemic dog without clinical signs, gallbladder mucocele resolved 6 months after beginning use of a fat-restricted diet and ursodeoxycholic acid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shetland Sheepdogs are predisposed to gallbladder disorders, with mucoceles and concurrent dyslipidemia or dysmotility in many affected dogs. Most dogs were without clinical signs during mucocele development. Low survival rate after cholecystectomy in clinically affected dogs suggested that preemptive surgical interventions may be a more appropriate treatment strategy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the influence of treatment with ultralow-dose aspirin (ULDAsp) on platelet aggregation, P-selectin (CD62P) expression, and formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—18 clinically normal dogs.

Procedures—Studies were conducted before and 24 hours after ULDAsp administration (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 2 days). Whole blood impedance aggregometry for the assessment of platelet function was performed with sodium citrate–anticoagulated blood and aggregation agonists (ADP at 20, 10, and 5 μmol/L; collagen at 10, 5, and 2 μg/mL). Onset, maximum response, and rate of platelet aggregation were recorded. Flow cytometric assays were configured to detect thrombin-induced CD62P expression and platelet-leukocyte aggregates in EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood. Externalized platelet CD62P and constitutive CD61 (GPIIIa) were labeled with antibodies conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), respectively. Red blood cell–lysed paraformaldehyde-fixed EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood was dual labeled with CD61-FITC and a panleukocyte antibody (CD18-PE) to characterize platelet-leukocyte aggregates.

Results—ULDAsp significantly delayed platelet aggregation onset with ADP at 20 μmol/L by 54% to 104%, attenuated maximum aggregation with various concentrations of ADP and collagen by ≥ 41%, and slowed aggregation rate with the highest ADP and collagen concentrations by ≥ 39%. Depending on the parameter tested, up to 30% of dogs failed to have an ULDAsp effect. Thrombin stimulation significantly increased CD62P expression in platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates, but ULDAsp did not alter basal or thrombin-stimulated CD62P expression.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ULDAsp treatment of clinically normal dogs impaired platelet aggregation in most dogs, but did not influence CD62P platelet membrane expression. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1294–1304)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate prognostic factors, survival, and treatment protocols for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—151 dogs with IMHA not associated with underlying infectious or neoplastic disease.

Procedure—Information recorded from review of medical records included signalment at the time of initial evaluation; vaccination history; 30-, 60-, and 365-day follow-up outcomes; laboratory data; results of imaging studies; and necropsy findings. Dogs were grouped according to the presence of spherocytes, autoagglutination, a regenerative erythrocyte response, and treatments received (azathioprine, azathioprine plus ultralowdose aspirin, azathioprine plus mixed–molecular-weight heparin [mHEP], or azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin plus mHEP) for comparisons. All dogs received glucocorticoids.

Results—Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, neutered dogs, and female dogs were overrepresented. Alterations in certain clinicopathologic variables were associated with increased mortality rate. Rates of survival following treatment with azathioprine, azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin, azathioprine plus mHEP, and azathioprine plus ultralow-dose aspirin plus mHEP were 74%, 88%, 23%, and 70%, respectively, at hospital discharge; 57%, 82%, 17%, and 67%, respectively, at 30 days; and 45%, 69%, 17%, and 64%, respectively, at 1 year. In comparison, mean survival rates at discharge and at 30 days and 1 year after evaluation collated from 7 published reviews of canine IMHA were 57%, 58%, and 34%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with a combination of glucocorticoids, azathioprine, and ultralow-dose aspirin significantly improved short-and long-term survival in dogs with IMHA. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1869–1880)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.

ANIMALS

15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.

PROCEDURES

Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.

RESULTS

Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH.

Procedures—Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained.

Results—39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalments, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, imaging findings, treatments, and survival time of cats with presumed primary copper-associated hepatopathy (PCH) and to determine quantitative measures and histologic characteristics of the accumulation and distribution of copper in liver samples of cats with presumed PCH, extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, chronic nonsuppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis, and miscellaneous other hepatobiliary disorders and liver samples of cats without hepatobiliary disease.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—100 cats with hepatobiliary disease (PCH [n = 11], extrahepatic bile duct obstruction [14], cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis [37], and miscellaneous hepatobiliary disorders [38]) and 14 cats without hepatobiliary disease.

Procedures—From 1980 to 2013, cats with and without hepatobiliary disease confirmed by liver biopsy and measurement of hepatic copper concentrations were identified. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and imaging data were compared between cats with and without PCH.

Results—Cats with PCH were typically young (median age, 2.0 years); clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics were similar to those of cats with other liver disorders. Copper-specific staining patterns and quantification of copper in liver samples confirmed PCH (on the basis of detection of > 700 μg/g of liver sample dry weight). Six cats with PCH underwent successful treatment with chelation (penicillamine; n = 5), antioxidants (5), low doses of elemental zinc (2), and feeding of hepatic support or high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, and other hepatic support treatments. One cat that received penicillamine developed hemolytic anemia, which resolved after discontinuation of administration. Three cats with high hepatic copper concentrations developed hepatocellular neoplasia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that copper accumulates in livers of cats as primary and secondary processes. Long-term management of cats with PCH was possible.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs, clinicopathologic features, treatments, and survival in dogs with naturally acquired foodborne aflatoxicosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—72 dogs that consumed aflatoxin-contaminated commercial dog food.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. Between December 2005 and March 2006, dogs were identified as having foodborne aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis on the basis of the history of consumption of contaminated food or characteristic histopathologic lesions (subject dog or a recently deceased dog in the same household or kennel). Recorded information included signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic test results, treatments, and survival. Data were analyzed by survival status.

Results—Most dogs were of large breeds from breeding kennels. No significant differences were found in age or weight between 26 (36%) survivor dogs and 46 (64%) nonsurvivor dogs. Severity of clinical signs varied widely; 7 dogs died abruptly. In order of onset, clinical features included anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea (melena, hematochezia), abdominal effusion, peripheral edema, and terminal encephalopathy and hemorrhagic diathesis. Common clinicopathologic features included coagulopathic and electrolyte disturbances, hypoproteinemia, increased serum liver enzyme activities, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Cytologic hepatocellular lipid vacuolation was confirmed in 11 dogs examined. In comparisons of clinicopathologic test results between survivor and nonsurvivor dogs, only granular cylindruria (7/21 dogs) consistently predicted death. Best early markers of aflatoxicosis were low plasma activities of anticoagulant proteins (protein C, antithrombin) and hypocholesterolemia. Despite aggressive treatment, many but not all severely affected dogs died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum liver enzyme activities and bilirubin concentration were unreliable early markers of aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis in dogs. Hypocholesterolemia and decreased plasma protein C and antithrombin activities may function as exposure biomarkers.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association