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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of an ultrasonographically and radiographically determined value, the vertebral epaxial muscle score (VEMS), for assessing muscle mass in cats.

ANIMALS 30 healthy neutered cats of various body weights and between 1 and 6 years of age.

PROCEDURES Mean epaxial muscle height was calculated from 3 transverse ultrasonographic images obtained at the level of T13. Length of T4 was measured on thoracic radiographs, and the VEMS (ratio of epaxial muscle height to T4 length) was calculated and compared with body weight. Ratios of epaxial muscle height to various anatomic measurements also were compared with body weight as potential alternatives to use of T4 length.

RESULTS 1 cat was excluded because of a heart murmur. For the remaining 29 cats, mean ± SD body weight was 5.05 ± 1.40 kg. Mean epaxial muscle height was 1.27 ± 0.13 cm, which was significantly correlated (r = 0.65) with body weight. The VEMS and value for epaxial muscle height/(0.1 × forelimb circumference) were not significantly correlated (r = −0.18 and −0.06, respectively) with body weight, which is important for measures used for animals of various sizes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The VEMS and value for epaxial muscle height/(0.1 × forelimb circumference) can both be used to normalize muscle size among cats of various body weights. Studies are warranted to determine whether these values can be used to accurately assess muscle mass in cats with various adiposity and in those with muscle loss.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum vitamin E concentrations in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) and healthy control dogs.

Sample Population—Serum and plasma samples from 36 dogs with IMHA and 40 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected from all study dogs. Plasma MDA concentrations were measured by use of a commercial colorimetric assay, and serum vitamin E concentrations (α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol concentrations) were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Plasma MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the dogs with IMHA than in the control dogs. Compared with control dogs, serum α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in the IMHA-affected dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated a state of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant reserve in dogs with IMHA; this finding provides support for further investigation of the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment in dogs with this disease. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1621–1624)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine reference values for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in echocardiographically normal cats.

Animals—30 healthy cats without evidence of cardiomyopathy on echocardiographic examination.

Procedures—All cats underwent echocardiographic examination, the findings of which were reviewed by a board-certified cardiologist. Cats that struggled (n = 10) received mild sedation with butorphanol and midazolam IM to permit phlebotomy without interruption in jugular venous blood flow. Blood samples were collected for analysis of thromboelastography variables, PCV, total solids concentration, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin concentration.

Results—All 4 thromboelastography variables had < 5% mean intra-assay variability. Mean values were as follows: reaction time, 4.3 minutes; clotting time, 1.6 minutes; α angle, 66.5°; and maximum amplitude, 56.4 mm. Compared with nonsedated cats, cats that required sedation had a significantly shorter clotting time and greater α angle, whereas reaction time and maximum amplitude were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Kaolin-activated thromboelastography was a reliable test with unremarkable intra-assay variability in echocardiographically normal cats. Sedation may affect certain thromboelastography variables, but the effect is unlikely to be clinically important. It remains unknown whether subclinical cardiomyopathy has a significant effect on thromboelastography variables in cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare morphometric measurements and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) concentration in cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and assess the hypothesis that cats with HCM have larger body size and skeletal features and higher serum IGF-1 concentrations than healthy cats.

Animals—25 cats with HCM and 22 healthy control cats.

Procedures—Physical examination and echocardiography were performed to classify cats into the HCM and control groups. Data collected from each cat included diet history, body weight, body condition score, lengths of the humerus and 4th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, heart size, head length and width, and abdominal circumferences. Comparisons of these variables were made between groups.

Results—Body condition score in HCM-affected and control cats did not differ significantly. However, median head width; lengths of the head, 4th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, and humerus; and body weight in the HCM-affected group were significantly greater than values in the control group. Median serum concentration of IGF-1 was not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data suggested that among the study cats, those with HCM were skeletally larger, but not more obese, than healthy cats. Whether this was attributable to differences in early growth or other causes requires additional investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical characteristics of dogs that received massive transfusion and identify the underlying diseases, complications, and outcomes.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs receiving a massive blood transfusion were evaluated for transfusion volume, underlying disease process or injury, benefits and complications of transfusion, and outcome. A massive transfusion was defined as transfusion of a volume of blood products in excess of the patient's estimated blood volume (90 ml/kg [40 ml/lb]) in a 24-hour period or transfusion of a volume of blood products in excess of half the patient's estimated blood volume in a 3-hour period.

Results—Six dogs had intra-abdominal neoplasia resulting in hemoabdomen, 3 had suffered a traumatic incident resulting in hemoabdomen, and 6 had nontraumatic, non-neoplastic blood loss. Mean volumes of packed RBC and fresh-frozen plasma administered were 66.5 ml/kg (30 ml/lb) and 22.2 ml/kg (10 ml/lb), respectively. All dogs evaluated developed low ionized calcium concentrations and thrombocytopenia. Transfusion reactions were recognized in 6 dogs. Four dogs survived to hospital discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that massive transfusion is possible and potentially successful in dogs. Predictable changes in electrolyte concentrations and platelet count develop. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1664–1669)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION 2 dogs with chylothorax were identified to have cardiac mass lesions obstructing the return of venous blood from the cranial vena cava. Chylous effusion was presumed to have been a result of an increase in cranial vena cava pressure affecting flow of chyle through the thoracic duct.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Both dogs had tachypnea and pleural effusion requiring therapeutic thoracocentesis. Fluid analysis confirmed chylothorax. A heart-base mass was identified via echocardiography in each dog, and CT-angiographic findings confirmed obstruction to venous return in the cranial vena cava in both dogs and compression of the pulmonary artery in 1 dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Each dog was anesthetized, and self-expanding endovascular stents were placed with fluoroscopic guidance. In both dogs, the site of stent placement was the cranial vena cava, and in 1 dog, an additional stent was positioned in the pulmonary artery. Chylous effusion resolved successfully in both dogs after surgery, with postoperative survival times exceeding 6 months. Complications included periprocedural arrhythmias in both dogs and eventual obstruction of the stent with tumor extension and fluid reaccumulation in 1 dog.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endovascular stent placement may provide a useful palliative treatment for chylothorax secondary to vascular compression by a heart-base mass in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine nutrient intake and dietary patterns in cats with cardiac disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—95 cats with congenital cardiac disease or primary cardiomyopathy.

Procedures—Owners completed a standardized telephone questionnaire regarding their cat's diet and a 24-hour food recall to determine daily intake of calories, fat, protein, sodium, magnesium, and potassium.

Results—Of the 95 cats, 18 (19%) had a history of congestive heart failure and 73 (77%) had no clinical signs of cardiac disease. Fifty-five percent (52/95) of cats had concurrent disease. Inappetance was reported in 38% (36/95) of all cats and in 72% (68/95) of cats with a history of congestive heart failure. Most (57% [54/95]) cats received treats or table scraps on a regular basis. Approximately half the cats were receiving orally administered medications, supplements, or both. Only 34% (32/68) of owners used food to administer medications to cats. Cats consumed more than the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) minimums for protein, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, and nearly all cats consumed more than the AAFCO minimum for fat. Daily nutrient intake was variable for all of the nutrients assessed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary intake in cats with cardiac disease was variable, but results for dietary supplement use, food use for medication administration, and treat feeding were different from those found in a similar study of dogs with cardiac disease. This information may be useful for treating and designing nutritional studies for cats with cardiac disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of cardiac cachexia on the metabolomic profile in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD).

ANIMALS

3 groups of dogs with MMVD enrolled between November 30, 2018, and April 7, 2022: (1) Dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) and cachexia (CHF-cachexia group; n = 10); (2) dogs with CHF that had no cachexia (CHF-no cachexia group; n = 10); and (3) dogs with asymptomatic disease (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine [ACVIM] Stage B2) with no cachexia (B2 group; n = 10).

METHODS

Metabolomic profiles were analyzed from serum samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Dogs in the 3 groups were compared, with statistical significance defined as P < .05 with a low false discovery rate (q < .10) and nominal statistical significance defined as P < .05 but q > .10.

RESULTS

Numerous metabolites were significantly (n = 201) or nominally significantly (n = 345) different between groups. For example, when comparing the CHF-cachexia vs CHF-no cachexia groups, lipids were the predominant metabolite differences, including many medium- and long-chain dicarboxylates and dicarboxylate acylcarnitines. For comparisons of the CHF-cachexia vs B2 groups and the CHF-no cachexia vs B2 groups, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors/vitamins were the predominant metabolite differences.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Some significant metabolite differences were identified between dogs with and without cardiac cachexia.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research