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SUMMARY

Objective

To determine usefulness of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarHb) concentration for differentiation of acute renal failure (ARF) from chronic renal failure (CRF) in dogs.

Sample Population

Samples from dogs with ARF or CRF and from nonazotemic control dogs.

Procedure

CarHb concentration was determined in heparinized blood samples by measuring the micrograms of valine hydantoin (VH) per gram of hemoglobin (Hb), using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, in which carbamyl valine is converted to VH via acid hydrolysis.

Results

CarHb concentration was significantly higher in dogs with ARF and CRF, compared with values in control dogs (ARF vs control, P < 0.05; CRF vs control, P < 0.001). Furthermore, CarHb concentration was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in dogs with CRF, compared with that in dogs with ARF. Carbamylated hemoglobin concentration did not correlate with serum urea nitrogen or creatinine concentration. Using a cutoff value of 100 μg of VH/g of Hb, the sensitivity and specificity of CarHb concentration for differentiating ARF from CRF was 96.1 and 84.2%, respectively.

Conclusions

CarHb concentration was useful in the differentiation of ARF from CRF in the dogs of this study.

Clinical Relevance

CarHb concentration may be used to increase the accuracy of identifying ARF, so that early, aggressive management can be instituted, thereby increasing the chance of recovery. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1193–1196)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To establish clinical features, course of illness, and treatment outcome of cats with diarrhea and concurrent infection with Trichomonas organisms. Prevalence of fecal trichomonads in a geographically comparable population of healthy indoor and feral cats also was assessed.

Design

Longitudinal study and a cohort study.

Animals

32 cats with diarrhea and naturally acquired trichomonosis that were native to North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and Tennessee; 20 healthy indoor cats; and 100 feral cats.

Procedure

Trichomonosis was diagnosed in 32 cats by identification of organisms in fresh feces or by protozoal culture of feces.

Results

Diarrhea associated with the large intestine and trichomonosis were diagnosed in 32 cats. Median age of the cats was 9 months; 23 cats were ≤ 1 year old at the time of diagnosis. Two cats developed diarrhea accompanied by infection with Trichomonas organisms after the addition of an infected kitten into the home. Duration of diarrhea ranged from 2 days to 3 years. Six cats had a coexisting enteric infection. Treatment with antimicrobials improved fecal consistency and reduced the number of flagellates in the feces, but did not eliminate infection. Diarrhea (with microscopically detectable flagellates) was observed shortly after antibiotics were discontinued. Trichomonads were not recovered from feces of any healthy indoor or feral cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Our findings suggest that trichomonosis may be a cofactor in development of diarrhea in young cats. Trichomonas organisms were not identified as part of the indiginous fauna of healthy indoor or feral cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1450–1454)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis.

Results

Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats.

Clinical Implications

A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1150-1156)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association