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  • Author or Editor: Jim E. Riviere x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the tissue depletion profile of tulathromycin and determine an appropriate slaughter withdrawal interval in meat goats after multiple SC injections of the drug.

Animals—16 healthy Boer goats.

Procedures—All goats were administered tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC) twice, with a 7-day interval between doses. Blood samples were collected throughout the study, and goats were euthanized at 2, 5, 10, and 20 days after the second tulathromycin dose. Lung, liver, kidney, fat, and muscle tissues were collected. Concentrations of tulathromycin in plasma and the hydrolytic tulathromycin fragment CP-60,300 in tissue samples were determined with ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

Results—The plasma profile of tulathromycin was biphasic. Absorption was very rapid, with maximum drug concentrations (1.00 ± 0.42 μg/mL and 2.09 ± 1.77 μg/mL following the first and second doses, respectively) detected within approximately 1 hour after injection. Plasma terminal elimination half-life of tulathromycin was 61.4 ± 14.1 hours after the second dose. Half-lives in tissue ranged from 2.4 days for muscle to 9.0 days for lung tissue; kidney tissue was used to determine the withdrawal interval for tulathromycin in goats because it is considered an edible tissue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the tissue tolerance limit in cattle of 5 ppm (μg/g), the calculated withdrawal interval for tulathromycin would be 19 days following SC administration in goats. On the basis of the more stringent guidelines recommended by the FDA, the calculated meat withdrawal interval following tulathromycin administration in goats was 34 days.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine elimination kinetics of tilmicosin in milk following intramammary administration in lactating dairy cattle.

Design—Prospective pharmacokinetic study.

Animals—6 lactating dairy cows.

Procedures—Following collection of baseline milk samples, 1,200 mg (4 mL) of tilmicosin was infused into the left front and right rear mammary glands of each cow. Approximately 12 hours later, an additional 1,200 mg of tilmicosin was infused into the left front and right rear glands after milking. Milk samples were then collected from each gland at milking time for 40 days. Concentration of tilmicosin was determined by means of ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and a milk withdrawal interval for tilmicosin was calculated on the basis of the tolerance limit method.

Results—Although there was considerable variation between glands, concentration of tilmicosin was high in milk from treated glands and had a long half-life in treated and untreated glands. Tilmicosin was detected in all treated glands for the entire 40-day study period and was detected in untreated glands for approximately 30 to 35 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that tilmicosin should not be administered by the intramammary route in lactating dairy cows. Milk from all glands of any cows accidentally treated should be discarded for a minimum of 82 days following intramammary administration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the feasibility of using multivariate cluster analysis to meta-analyze pharmacokinetic data obtained from studies of pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate in cattle and identify factors that could account for variability in pharmacokinetic parameters among studies.

Sample Population—Data from original studies of the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate in cattle in the database of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank.

Procedure—Mean plasma or serum ampicillin concentration versus time data and potential factors that may have affected the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate were obtained from each study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed, and values of pharmacokinetic parameters were clustered by use of multivariate cluster analysis. Practical importance of the clusters was evaluated by comparing the frequency of factors that may have affected the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate among clusters.

Results—A single cluster with lower mean values for clearance and volume of distribution of ampicillin trihydrate administered PO, compared with other clusters, was identified. This cluster included studies that used preruminant calves in which feeding was withheld overnight and calves to which probenecid had been administered concurrently.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meta-analysis was successful in detecting a potential subpopulation of cattle for which factors that explained differences in pharmacokinetic parameters could be identified. Accurate estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters are important for the calculation of dosages and extended withdrawal intervals after extralabel drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:108–112)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin differed between healthy and mastitic cows.

Design—Prospective controlled clinical trial.

Animals—20 lactating Holstein cows.

Procedures—Cows with mastitis and matched control cows received flunixin IV, ceftiofur IM, and cephapirin or ceftiofur, intramammary. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 hours after flunixin administration. Composite milk samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96 hours. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed by use of ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Results—For flunixin in plasma samples, differences in area under the concentration-time curve and clearance were detected between groups. Differences in flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations in milk were detected at various time points. At 36 hours after flunixin administration (milk withdrawal time), 8 cows with mastitis had 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations higher than the tolerance limit (ie, residues). Flunixin residues persisted in milk up to 60 hours after administration in 3 of 10 mastitic cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetics and elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin in milk differed between mastitic and healthy cows, resulting in violative residues. This may partially explain the high number of flunixin residues reported in beef and dairy cattle. This study also raised questions as to whether healthy animals should be used when determining withdrawal times for meat and milk.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the elimination kinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in milk after intramammary administration in lactating dairy cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—5 lactating dairy cows.

Procedure—After collection of baseline milk samples, 300 mg (6 mL) of ceftiofur was infused into the left front and right rear mammary gland quarters of each cow. Approximately 12 hours later, an additional 300 mg of ceftiofur was administered into the same mammary gland quarters after milking. Milk samples were collected from each mammary gland quarter every 12 hours for 10 days. Concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites in each milk sample were determined to assess the rate of ceftiofur elimination.

Results—Although there were considerable variations among mammary gland quarters and individual cows, ceftiofur concentrations in milk from all treated mammary gland quarters were less than the tolerance (0.1 µg/mL) set by the FDA by 168 hours (7 days) after the last intramammary administration of ceftiofur. No drug concentrations were detected in milk samples beyond this period. Ceftiofur was not detected in any milk samples from nontreated mammary gland quarters throughout the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ceftiofur administered by the intramammary route as an extralabel treatment for mastitis in dairy cows reaches concentrations in milk greater than the tolerance set by the FDA. Results indicated that milk from treated mammary gland quarters should be discarded for a minimum of 7 days after intramammary administration of ceftiofur. Elimination of ceftiofur may be correlated with milk production, and cows producing smaller volumes of milk may have prolonged withdrawal times. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1827–1830)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association