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Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—3 horses were examined and treated because of sudden onset of signs of abdominal pain.

Clinical Findings—All horses had a retrosternal (Morgagni) hernia involving the right side of the diaphragm. In each horse, the large colon was incarcerated in a right muscular defect in the diaphragm with a large hernial sac.

Treatment and Outcome—Definitive surgical repair of the hernia was not performed during the initial celiotomy. The hernia was repaired with mesh herniorrhaphy, but without resection of the hernia sac in 2 horses. For 1 horse, conservative management was applied. In the 2 horses treated with surgical correction, no major postoperative complications developed, and all 3 horses have been free of signs of abdominal pain.

Clinical Relevance—Horses with retrosternal hernias involving the diaphragm can develop clinical signs of intermittent obstruction of the large colon and chronic colic. In horses, retrosternal diaphragmatic hernias appear to develop exclusively in the right ventral aspect of the diaphragm and could represent an embryologic defect of diaphragm formation. Affected horses can be successfully treated with mesh herniorrhaphy or, in some instances, with conservative management.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of horses in which cutaneous masses were removed with a carbon dioxide laser.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—32 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with 1 or more cutaneous masses treated with a carbon dioxide laser were examined. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Cutaneous masses were classified as sarcoids (15 horses), neoplastic masses other than sarcoids (squamous cell carcinoma [9]; fibroma [1]; and melanoma [1]), and nonneoplastic masses (6). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months. Five sarcoids and 2 squamous cell carcinomas recurred. Seven (21%) horses had complications associated with dehiscence of wounds that had been closed primarily or failure of wound healing because of recurrence of the mass. Twenty-six (81%) owners were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance following surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a carbon dioxide laser may be effective for treatment of cutaneous masses in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1192–1197)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2- and 3-year-old and career race performance of Thoroughbred racehorse prospects with and without osteochondral fragmentation of the accessory carpal bone (ACB) identified on yearling presale radiographs.

DESIGN Retrospective, matched cohort study.

ANIMALS 47 nonlame Thoroughbreds with (exposed cohort) and 94 nonlame Thoroughbreds without (unexposed cohort) osteochondral fragmentation of ACB facture identified on yearling sales repository radiographs.

PROCEDURES Repository radiographic interpretation reports for September yearling sales of a large Kentucky auction house from 2005 through 2012 were reviewed, and race records were collected and analyzed. Race performance was compared between horses with and without ACB fracture chosen from the same sale to identify associations between racing performance and ACB fracture.

RESULTS No significant differences were identified between horses with or without ACB fracture in their incidence of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old and the number of races started, earnings, or earnings per start for 2- or 3-year-old or career race performance. There was no significant difference in performance between horses with or without concurrent carpal osteoarthritis, nor did performance differ between horses with ACB fracture alone and those with ACB fracture and other radiographic abnormalities found to be associated with poorer performance in previous studies.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ACB fracture with or without carpal osteoarthritic changes identified on repository radiographs of Thoroughbred yearlings was not associated with poorer racing performance or lower likelihood of starting a race as a 2- or 3-year-old, compared with outcomes for unaffected horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize features of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in horses with foreign bodies, exclusive of enteric, inhaled, and foot-penetrating foreign bodies.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 horses with foreign bodies.

Procedures—The incidence of equine foreign bodies from 1990 through 2005 was determined by review of data from veterinary schools participating in the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB). Medical records of horses with foreign bodies at Purdue University were reviewed, and the following information was retrieved: clinical history; signalment; results of physical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examinations; results of microbial culture of the draining tract or foreign body material; surgical findings; antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatments; and complications of the surgical procedure. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from owners or referring veterinarians.

Results—The incidence of foreign bodies in horses with records in the VMDB was 1730/10,000 horse admissions. A preoperative diagnosis of foreign bodies was confirmed via ultrasonography in most horses examined (15/17 horses) and with plain film radiography in a quarter of horses examined (7/24 horses). Wood foreign bodies were the most common (59%; 22/37), followed by metal (24%; 9/37), hair (8%; 3/37), nonsequestrum bone (5%; 2/37), and plant material (3%; 1/37). Postoperative complications associated with the foreign body were more likely to develop with wood foreign bodies (3/22) than with other types of foreign bodies (1/15).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Wood was the most common penetrating foreign body in the horses in our study and was the type associated with the highest incidence of complications. Ultrasonography was more effective in locating foreign bodies than was radiography (plain and contrast) and should be performed in all horses with suspected foreign bodies.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of 3 topically applied treatments (1% silver sulfadiazine cream [SSC], triple antimicrobial ointment [TAO], and hyperosmolar nanoemulsion [HNE]) on microbial counts, exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) development, and reepithelialization of contaminated wounds at the distal aspect of the limbs of horses.

ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES A 2.5 × 2.5-cm, full-thickness, cutaneous wound was created at the dorsal aspect of each metacarpus and metatarsus (1 wound/limb/horse), covered with nonadhesive dressing, and bandaged. Wounds were inoculated with bacteria and fungi the next day. Each wound on a given horse was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (SSC, TAO, HNE, or no topical treatment [control]). Bandage changes, culture of wound samples, treatments, photography for wound measurements, and biopsy were performed at predetermined time points. Time (days) until wound closure, number of EGT excisions, microbial counts, and scores for selected histologic characteristics were compared among groups.

RESULTS Median time to wound closure for all groups was 42 days. Time to wound closure and histologic characteristics of wound healing did not differ among groups. Least squares mean microbial counts were significantly higher for HNE-treated wounds on days 9 and 21, compared with SSC-treated and TAO-treated wounds, but not controls. Proportions of SSC-treated (7/8) or HNE-treated (5/8) wounds needing EGT excision were significantly greater than that of TAO-treated (1/8) wounds. The proportion of SSC-treated wounds with EGT excision was greater than that of controls (3/8).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE None of the treatments resulted in more rapid wound closure, compared with that for untreated control wounds under the study conditions. When treatment is warranted, TAO may help to limit EGT formation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of diode laser palatoplasty on the soft palate in horses.

Animals—6 clinically normal horses and 6 euthanized horses from another study.

Procedures—6 horses underwent diode laser palatoplasty (treated horses); 3 received low-dose laser treatment (1,209 to 1,224 J), and 3 received high-dose treatment (2,302 to 2,420 J). Six other horses received no treatment (control horses). The upper respiratory tracts of all treated horses were evaluated immediately following surgery (day 0) and on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45. Horses were euthanized on day 45, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head was performed. The soft palate was removed from treated and control horses, evaluated grossly, and scored for edema, inflammation, and scarring. Soft palates from all horses were sectioned for histologic and biomechanical evaluations.

Results—Endoscopic examination revealed a significant increase in soft palate scarring and decrease in edema and inflammation in treated horses by day 7. Gross postmortem findings corresponded with MRI findings. Gross and histologic examination revealed a significant increase in scarring, edema, and inflammation at day 45. Histologic evaluation of palatal tissue from high-dose–treated horses revealed full-thickness injury of skeletal muscle, with atrophy of muscle fibers; findings in low-dose–treated horses indicated superficial injury to skeletal muscle. After surgery, treated horses had a significant decrease in soft palate elastic modulus, compared with control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laser palatoplasty resulted in soft palate fibrosis and skeletal muscle loss; however, the fibrosis did not result in an increase in soft palate elastic modulus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the extent to which a hydroxyapatite coating promotes pin stability in the third metacarpal bone during transfixation casting in horses.

Animals—14 adult horses.

Procedures—7 horses each were assigned to either an uncoated or hydroxyapatite-coated pin group. Three transcortical pins were placed in the third metacarpal bone of each horse and incorporated into a cast for 8 weeks. Insertion and extraction torque were measured, and torque reduction was calculated. Radiography was performed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Lameness evaluation was performed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Bacteriologic culture of pins and pin holes was performed at pin removal.

Results—All horses used casts without major complication throughout the study. Insertion torque was higher in uncoated pins. There was no effect of group on extraction torque. Hydroxyapatite-coated pins had lower torque reduction. Five of 15 hydroxyapatite-coated pins maintained or increased stability, whereas all uncoated pins loosened. Pin hole radiolucency, lameness grades, and positive bacteriologic culture rates were not different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydroxyapatite coating increased pin stability within the third metacarpal bone of horses during 8 weeks of transfixation casting but did not improve pin performance on clinical assessments. Clinical use of hydroxyapatite-coated transfixation pins may result in greater pin stability; however, further research is necessary to improve the consistency of pin osteointegration and elucidate whether clinical benefits will ultimately result from this approach in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research