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Objective

To assess the effect of incomplete, midsagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) on racing performance in Standardbreds.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Animals

49 Standardbred horses admitted to the George D. Widener Hospital for Large Animals between July 1986 and December 1992 with a definitive radiographic diagnosis of an incomplete, midsagittal fracture of P1 and a known method of treatment.

Procedure

Performance index and racing time were compared before and after diagnosis and treatment of fracture, using ANOVA that controlled for the effects of horse, gender, age, track length, and track condition.

Results

Expected racing time increased by 0.7 seconds and performance index decreased by 0.7 points, although controlling for factors known to affect racing performance had a substantial impact on these results.

Clinical Implications

Standardbreds with incomplete, midsagittal fractures of P1 have a favorable prognosis for return to racing; recovered horses will likely have slower racing times and decreased performance indices. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:82–86)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare present values of expected income streams for 5 distinct veterinary medical career tracks.

Design—Present value model.

Sample Population—AVMA survey data.

Procedures—Present values of expected income streams (net of debt repayment) were created and ranked. Sensitivity to each independent variable was assessed.

Results—Career present value at 34 years after graduation (CPV34) was highest for board-certified specialist (SP; $2,272,877), followed by practice owner (PO; $2,119,596), practice owner buying into practice after 10 years (PO-10; $1,736,333), SP working three-fouths time (SP3/4; $1,702,744), and general practitioner (GP; $1,221,131). Compared with CPV34 for SP, other career tracks yielded values of 93.3% (PO), 76.4% (PO-10), 74.9% (SP3/4), and 53.7% (GP). The model was robust to debt, interest rate, loan term, and discount rate but was sensitive to mean starting incomes and mean incomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Greatest return on time and money invested by a veterinary student is through practicing full-time as an SP or through being a PO. Being an SP or SP3/4 was substantially more lucrative than being a GP and was comparable to being a PO. Practice ownership and working as an SP3/4 may be options for balancing financial gain with free time. Specialty training and practice ownership may be career tracks with the best potential repayment options for veterinarians with a large educational debt. Regardless of the amount of debt, the type of practice, mean incomes in a particular field, personal lifestyle, and professional interests are important factors when deciding among career tracks.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether sex of fetus, sire, month of conception, or year of foaling was associated with duration of gestation in mares.

Design

Epidemiologic retrospective cohort study.

Animals

500 foalings for 296 Standardbred mares.

Procedure

Data for reproductive events from 1986 to 1992 were analyzed. Analyses were conducted to determine whether duration of gestation was associated with sex of fetus, sire, month of conception, or year of foaling.

Results

Mean duration of gestation was 343.3 days and was significantly greater for colt fetuses (344.4 days) than for filly fetuses (342.2 days). Sire was associated with duration of gestation; gestation after mating with certain sires was consistently less than 340 days in duration, whereas duration after mating with other sires was consistently more than 350 days. Duration of gestation was associated with month of conception, decreasing by about 2.5 d/mo for mares conceiving later during the breeding season.

Clinical Implications

Duration of gestation is affected by mating to specific sires and by month of conception. Stallions associated with exceptionally prolonged gestations might be used to breed mares early in the breeding season, whereas stallions associated with shorter gestations might be desirable for mares bred later in the breeding season. Preparations for impending parturition should be more effective and efficient with improved information on expected date of parturition. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1743–1745)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To perform a herd-level analysis of economic losses associated with paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population

A multistage stratified random sample of 121 dairy herds in Michigan.

Procedure

A 2-part questionnaire was used to gather data on management practices, herd productivity, labor use, and expenditures. Blood samples were collected from a random sample of cows ≥ 2 years old in each herd and tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. A herd was considered negative for paratuberculosis if results for all cows tested were negative. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the data.

Results

A 10% increase in proportion of cows positive for paratuberculosis was associated with a 33.4 kg (73.5 Ib) decrease in mean weight of culled cows. Mortality rate among herds positive for paratuberculosis was 3% higher than rate among herds negative for paratuberculosis. Herds positive for paratuberculosis did not have a significantly higher annual number of hours of labor per cow than did herds negative for paratuberculosis.

Clinical Implications

For a herd of average size and cull rate, the reduction in mean weight of culled cows attributable to paratuberculosis represented a loss of approximately $1,150 annually for each 10% increase in herd prevalence of paratuberculosis. The increased mortality rate attributable to paratuberculosis represented a loss of between $1,607 and $4,400 on the basis of lost slaughter value and cost of replacement heifers. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:822–825)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To assess the educational value of a practice-based ambulatory program used at a school of veterinary medicine.

Design—

Retrospective cohort study.

Sample Population—

Graduates of US veterinary medical schools between 1987 and 1994.

Procedure—

Phase I involved use of interviews and focus groups to assist in development of the questionnaire used in phase II, a retrospective cohort study. The pretested questionnaire was sent to a study population consisting of all graduates of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Veterinary Medicine, between 1987 and 1994 as well as a control group who were randomly selected from the 1994 AVMA list of veterinarians. Control-group veterinarians were matched on the basis of professional activity, region, and year of graduation.

Results—

728 of 1.067 veterinarians completed the questionnaire in phase II of the study (response rate, 68%). The practice-based ambulatory program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison compared favorably with university-based ambulatory programs in volume of experiences and perceived educational quality. Regardless of rotation type. female students were significantly less likely to observe or perform 12 specific clinical procedures and were significantly less likely to rate instructional quality as excellent or very good. compared with male students.

Clinical Implications—

Practice-based ambulatory rotations can be a good alternative to existing university-based ambulatory rotations. Implementation of these programs should emphasize performance of procedures while striving to ensure participation of female students. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1590–1594

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association