Objective—To compare present values of expected income streams for 5 distinct veterinary medical career tracks.
Design—Present value model.
Sample Population—AVMA survey data.
Procedures—Present values of expected income streams (net of debt repayment) were created and ranked. Sensitivity to each independent variable was assessed.
Results—Career present value at 34 years after graduation (CPV34) was highest for board-certified specialist (SP; $2,272,877), followed by practice owner (PO; $2,119,596), practice owner buying into practice after 10 years (PO-10; $1,736,333), SP working three-fouths time (SP3/4; $1,702,744), and general practitioner (GP; $1,221,131). Compared with CPV34 for SP, other career tracks yielded values of 93.3% (PO), 76.4% (PO-10), 74.9% (SP3/4), and 53.7% (GP). The model was robust to debt, interest rate, loan term, and discount rate but was sensitive to mean starting incomes and mean incomes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Greatest return on time and money invested by a veterinary student is through practicing full-time as an SP or through being a PO. Being an SP or SP3/4 was substantially more lucrative than being a GP and was comparable to being a PO. Practice ownership and working as an SP3/4 may be options for balancing financial gain with free time. Specialty training and practice ownership may be career tracks with the best potential repayment options for veterinarians with a large educational debt. Regardless of the amount of debt, the type of practice, mean incomes in a particular field, personal lifestyle, and professional interests are important factors when deciding among career tracks.
Objective—To gain a better understanding of the role of interpersonal trust in veterinarian-client interactions during routine health-care visits, develop a measure of trust uniquely suited to the context of veterinary medicine, and interpret the actions, beliefs, and perceptions that capture client trust toward veterinarians.
Sample—103 veterinary students and 19 standardized clients with pets from a college of veterinary medicine at a large public Midwestern university.
Procedures—A measure of trust specific to veterinarian-client interactions was constructed on the basis of preexisting conceptualizations of the construct and administered to veterinary students and standardized clients following interactions in 2 medical scenarios in a high-fidelity simulated animal health clinic. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to validate the measure of trust, and hierarchic linear modeling was used to explore indicators of standardized client trust perceptions in one of the scenarios.
Results—Factor analysis revealed that the measure captured 2 perceptions indicative of trust in veterinary contexts: professionalism and technical candor. Students who had behaviors reflecting these factors as well as those who were perceived as more technically competent were seen as more trustworthy by standardized clients.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The development of trustworthy relationships between clients and veterinarians is important to the continued growth and success of the profession. By identifying characteristics of veterinarian trustworthiness and developing related measurement tools, proactive approaches to monitoring veterinarian-client relations can be implemented and incorporated into veterinary training and practice programs to identify areas for improvement.
Objective—To compare endoscopic findings of the
upper portion of the respiratory tract in Thoroughbred
yearlings with their subsequent race records to determine
whether subjective assessment of airway function
may be used as a predictor of future racing performance.
Animals—427 Thoroughbred yearlings.
Procedures—Endoscopic examination findings were
obtained from the medical records and the videoendoscopic
repository of the Keeneland 1996
September yearling sales. Racing records were
requested for the yearlings through the end of their 4-year-old racing season (1997–2000). Twenty-nine measures
of racing performance were correlated with
endoscopic findings. Subjective arytenoid cartilage
movement grades were determined, using a 4-point
grading scale (grade 1 = symmetrical synchronous
abduction of the arytenoid cartilages; grade 4 = no
substantial movement of the left arytenoid cartilage).
Results—Of the 427 Thoroughbred yearlings included
in this study, 364 established race records, and 63 did
not. Opinions regarding suitability for purchase, meeting
conditions of the sale, and the presence of
epiglottic abnormalities had no significant association
with racing performance. Arytenoid cartilage movement
grades were significantly associated with many
of the dependent variables. However, palatine abnormalities
were not predictive of inferior racing performance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Thoroughbred
yearlings with grade-1 and -2 arytenoid cartilage
movements had significantly better racing performance
as adults, compared with yearlings with grade-
3 arytenoid cartilage movements. In contrast, epiglottic
and palatine abnormalities were not predictive of
inferior racing performance. Therefore, evaluation of
laryngeal function, but not epiglottic or palatine abnormalities,
using the 4-point grading system, should be
the major factor in developing recommendations for
prospective buyers. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:
Objective—To determine the likelihood of false-positive
results when testing milk samples from individual
cows by use of 3 commercially available assays
(Penzyme Milk Test and the SNAP β-lactamand Delvo-
SP assays) labeled for use with commingled milk.
Sample Population—Milk samples from 111 cows
with mild clinical mastitis.
Procedure—Cows were randomly assigned to the
control (no antimicrobials) or intramammary treatment
group. Posttreatment milk samples were collected
at the first milking after the labeled withholding
period or an equivalent time for controls, randomly
ordered, and tested twice by use of each assay and
once by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.
Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative
predictive values were determined for each assay.
Concordance of results for the same sample was
assessed for each assay by calculating κ.
Results—Sensitivities of the Delvo-SP and SNAP β-lactam assays were > 90%, whereas the sensitivity
of the Penzyme Milk Test was 60%. Positive predictive
values (range, 39.29 to 73.68%) were poor for all
3 assays. Concordance of test results was excellent
for the SNAP β-lactam and Delvo-SP assays (κ =
0.846 and 0.813, respectively) but was less for the
Penzyme Milk Test (κ = 0.545).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of
the low positive predictive values, these 3 assays may
not be useful for detecting violative antimicrobial
residues in individual milk samples from cows treated
for mild clinical mastitis. However, repeatability of
each assay was considered good to excellent. (Am J
Vet Res 2001;62:1716–1720)
Objective—To characterize potential mechanisms of
action of glucosamine inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase
(MMP) expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide
(LPS)-stimulated equine chondrocytes.
Sample Population—Chondrocytes cultured from
samples of metacarpophalangeal articular cartilage
collected from cadaveric limbs of horses.
Procedure—The effect of glucosamine on MMP activity
in conditioned medium from LPS-stimulated cartilage
explants was determined by a colorimetric assay
with azocoll substrate. Treatments consisted of negative
and positive controls, glucose (50mM), and glucosamine
(50, 25, 6.25, 3, and 1.5mM). The influence
of glucosamine on MMP synthesis was determined in
chondrocytes in pellet culture incubated with LPS (20
µg/mL). Concentration of MMP-13 was quantified in
spent medium via ELISA; nonspecific MMP activity
was determined via azocoll digestion in organomercurial-
activated medium. Effects of glucosamine on
MMP mRNA concentration in similarly treated chondrocytes
were determined by northern blot hybridization
with MMP-1, -3, and -13 probes. Statistical analyses
were performed with 2-way ANOVA.
Results—Glucosamine had no effect on activated
MMP activity but inhibited MMP protein expression,
as determined by azocoll digestion (glucosamine, 3 to
50mM) and MMP-13 ELISA (glucosamine, 1.5 to
50mM). Resting mRNA concentrations for MMP-1,
-3, and -13 mRNA were significantly lower in cultures
exposed to glucosamine at concentrations of 50 and
25mM than those of positive controls.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glucosamine
appears capable of pretranslational, and possibly also
translational, regulation of MMP expression; data
suggest a potential mechanism of action for chondroprotective
effects of this aminomonosaccharide.
( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:666–671)