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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of topical ophthalmic application of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride solution (PHCL; containing 0.01% benzalkonium chloride as preservative) on aerobic bacterial culture results for naturally occurring infected corneal ulcers in dogs.

DESIGN Clinical trial.

ANIMALS 25 client-owned dogs with infected corneal ulcers (24 unilaterally affected and 1 bilaterally affected; only 1 eye included/dog) examined between June 2008 and May 2011.

PROCEDURES Swab samples for aerobic bacterial culture were collected from the periphery of each corneal ulcer before and approximately 1 minute after topical ophthalmic application of 1 drop of PHCL. Numbers of aerobic bacterial species isolated from affected eyes were compared between sample collection points and between other variables (ie, side [left or right] of affected eye, prior treatments, and patient age, sex, and neuter status).

RESULTS There was no significant difference between numbers of aerobic bacterial species isolated per eye or overall aerobic bacterial culture results (positive or negative) before versus after PHCL application. Similarly, prior treatment had no significant effect on aerobic bacterial culture results for samples collected at either point. The most commonly isolated bacteria before and after PHCL application were Staphylococcus spp (40% and 48%, respectively), followed by Streptococcus spp (23% and 22%, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ophthalmic application of PHCL did not significantly affect aerobic bacterial culture results for naturally occurring infected corneal ulcers in dogs as assessed in this study. Therefore, topical ophthalmic PHCL application could be useful in clinical settings prior to sample collection to relieve patient discomfort and to aid in sample acquisition without compromising aerobic bacterial culture results.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the time to completion, number of errors, and knot-holding capacity (KHC) for starting and ending square knots (SSKs and ESKs) of a continuous pattern and Aberdeen knots tied by veterinary students and to investigate student perceptions of knot security and knot-tying difficulty for the 3 knot types.

SAMPLE

16 second-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students created 3 (4-throw) SSKs, 3 (5-throw) ESKs, and 3 (3 + 1 configuration) Aberdeen knots with 2-0 polydioxanone on a custom test apparatus. Time to complete each knot, the number of errors in each knot, and student ratings of knot-tying difficulty and confidence in knot security were recorded. Each knot was tested to failure on a uniaxial tensiometer to determine KHC and mode of failure. Variables of interest were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA or the Friedman test with post hoc pairwise comparisons.

RESULTS

Mean knot completion time for Aberdeen knots was significantly less than mean completion time for SSKs or ESKs. Mean KHC was significantly lower for ESKs than for SSKs; KHC for Aberdeen knots was not compared with these values because of methodological differences. Median error rate was higher for ESKs than for other knot types. Mean difficulty rating for Aberdeen knots was lower than that for ESKs. Most tested knots failed by breakage at the knot.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Aberdeen knots appeared to be easy for veterinary students to learn and were completed more rapidly and with fewer errors than ESKs. Including this type of knot in surgical skills curriculum for novices may be beneficial.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure ocular effects (blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and intraocular pressure [IOP]) following aqueocentesis performed with needles of various sizes in dogs.

Animals—28 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—24 dogs underwent unilateral aqueocentesis (24 treated eyes and 24 contra-lateral untreated eyes); 25-, 27-, or 30-gauge needles were used in 3 treatment groups (n = 8/group). Four dogs were untreated controls. Aqueocentesis was performed during sedation and topical anesthesia. Anterior chamber fluorophotometry was performed before and after aqueocentesis on day 1. On days 2 through 5, sedation and fluorophotometry were repeated. Intraocular pressure was measured with a rebound tonometer at multiple time points.

Results—Aqueocentesis resulted in blood-aqueous barrier breakdown detected via fluorophotometry in all treated eyes, with barrier reestablishment by day 5. On day 2, the contralateral untreated eyes of all 3 groups also had significantly increased fluorescence. Use of a 25-gauge needle resulted in a significant increase in treated eyes' anterior chamber fluorescence on days 3 and 5 as well as a significant increase in IOP 20 minutes following aqueocentesis, compared with the other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aqueocentesis performed with a 25-gauge needle resulted in the greatest degree of blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and a brief state of intraocular hypertension. Use of a 27- or 30-gauge needle is recommended for aqueous paracentesis. A consensual ocular reaction appeared to occur in dogs following unilateral traumatic blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and may be of clinical importance.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess single-day and multiday repeatability of weight distribution (stance) data obtained with a commercial analyzer for dogs with naturally occurring hind limb lameness.

ANIMALS

46 dogs (15 and 31 for single-day and multiday trials, respectively).

PROCEDURES

For single-day trials, 5 to 10 measurements/trial were collected to determine body weight (BW), weight distribution on each limb, and forelimb and hind limb symmetry indices (SIs). The dog was removed from the room and returned immediately; 5 trials were performed. For multiday trials, measurements were performed in the same manner on 2 sequential days. Data were compared among trials (single-day measurements) and between days (multiday measurements). Repeatability (correlation coefficients and Lin concordance correlation coefficients [LCCCs]) and variability (coefficients of variation [CVs]) were assessed.

RESULTS

In single-day trials, BW (r = 0.999), weight distribution on the lame hind limb (r = 0.915) and contralateral hind limb (r = 0.948), and hind limb SI (r = 0.964) were each significantly correlated among trials. In multiday trials, BW results were similar; weight distribution on the lame hind limb and contralateral hind limb and hind limb SI were each less closely but still significantly correlated between days. The LCCCs were highest for BW, weight distribution on the contralateral hind limb, and hind limb SI in single-day trials and for BW and weight bearing on the contralateral and lame hind limbs in multiday trials. The CVs were lowest for BW and highest for forelimb SI in both trial types.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The analyzer used allowed repeatable measurement of BW and weight distribution on the hind limbs of dogs with hind limb lameness. Measurement of forelimb stance variables was not repeatable in this group of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of topical ophthalmic administration of 0.005% latanoprost solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in ophthalmologically normal dogs.

ANIMALS

12 adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In a masked crossover design involving two 10-day experimental periods separated by a 7-day washout period, dogs were randomly assigned to first receive latanoprost or artificial tears (control) solution and then the opposite treatment in the later experimental period. Each experimental period was divided into a baseline phase (days 1 to 3), baseline fluorophotometry assessment (day 4), treatment phase (1 drop of latanoprost or artificial tears solution administered twice daily in each eye on days 5 to 9 and once on day 10), and posttreatment fluorophotometry assessment (day 10). Measured fluorescein concentrations were used to calculate baseline and posttreatment AHFRs. The IOP was measured 5 times/d in each eye during baseline and treatment (days 5 to 9) phases.

RESULTS

Mean baseline and posttreatment AHFR values did not differ significantly in either experimental period (latanoprost or control). In the latanoprost period, mean IOP was significantly lower during treatment than at baseline; there was no difference in corresponding IOP values during the control period. In the latanoprost period, mean IOP was significantly higher on the first day of treatment than on subsequent treatment days.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In ophthalmologically normal dogs, topical ophthalmic administration of 0.005% latanoprost solution significantly decreased IOP but did not affect AHFR. Thus, the ocular hypotensive effect of latanoprost did not appear to have been caused by a reduction in aqueous humor production. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:498–504)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical efficacy of hydrocodone-acetaminophen and tramadol for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols were followed. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive either tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate–acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) for analgesia after surgery. The modified Glasgow composite measure pain scale was used to assess signs of postoperative pain at predetermined intervals by an investigator who was blinded to treatment group. Scoring commenced with the second dose of the assigned study analgesic. Pain scores and rates of treatment failure (ie, dogs requiring rescue analgesia according to a predetermined protocol) were compared statistically between groups.

RESULTS 12 of 42 (29%; 5/19 in the hydrocodone-acetaminophen group and 7/23 in the tramadol group) dogs required rescue analgesic treatment on the basis of pain scores. Median pain score for the hydrocodone group was significantly lower than that of the tramadol group 2 hours after the second dose of study analgesic. The 2 groups had similar pain scores at all other time points.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, differences in pain scores between dogs that received hydrocodone-acetaminophen or tramadol were minor. The percentage of dogs with treatment failure in both groups was considered unacceptable.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydrocodone (delivered in combination with acetaminophen) and tramadol in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tramadol hydrochloride (5 to 7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; tramadol group) or hydrocodone bitartrate–acetaminophen (0.5 to 0.6 mg of hydrocodone/kg, PO, q 8 h; hydrocodone group) following TPLO with standard anesthetic and surgical protocols. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis of study drugs and their metabolites over an 8-hour period beginning after the second dose of the study medication.

RESULTS The terminal half-life, maximum serum concentration, and time to maximum serum concentration for tramadol following naïve pooled modeling were 1.56 hours, 155.6 ng/mL, and 3.90 hours, respectively. Serum concentrations of the tramadol metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) were low. For hydrocodone, maximum serum concentration determined by naïve pooled modeling was 7.90 ng/mL, and time to maximum serum concentration was 3.47 hours. The terminal half-life for hydrocodone was 15.85 hours, but was likely influenced by delayed drug absorption in some dogs and may not have been a robust estimate. Serum concentrations of hydromorphone were low.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The pharmacokinetics of tramadol and metabolites were similar to those in previous studies. Serum tramadol concentrations varied widely, and concentrations of the active M1 metabolite were low. Metabolism of hydrocodone to hydromorphone in dogs was poor. Further study is warranted to assess variables that affect metabolism and efficacy of these drugs in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether addition of a continuous, local infusion of bupivacaine would improve postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing total ear canal ablation.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—16 dogs undergoing total ear canal ablation (12 unilaterally and 4 bilaterally with > 1 month between procedures).

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to receive morphine (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb]) at the end of the procedure (10 procedures) or morphine and a continuous, local infusion of bupivacaine (0.13 to 0.21 mg/kg/h [0.06 to 0.1 mg/lb/h]; 10 procedures). Dogs were observed for 48 hours after surgery. Additional doses of morphine were administered up to every 4 hours in dogs with signs of severe pain.

Results—Temperament, sedation, analgesia, and cumulative pain scores were not significantly different between groups any time after surgery. Recovery score was significantly higher for dogs that received bupivacaine than for control dogs 2 hours after extubation but not at any other time. Serum cortisol concentration was not significantly different between groups at any time but, in both groups, was significantly increased at the time of extubation, compared with all other observation times. Total number of additional doses of morphine administered was not significantly different between groups. Bupivacaine was not detected in the plasma of any of the dogs that received the local bupivacaine infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that addition of a continuous, local infusion of bupivacaine did not significantly increase the degree of postoperative analgesia in dogs that underwent total ear canal ablation and were given morphine at the end of surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:414–419)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

The objective of the study reported here was to evaluate the effects of changing velocity on stance time and ground reaction force (GRF) measurements in horses at the walk and trot.

Design

Force plate gait analysis was used to evaluate clinically normal horses at variable velocities. Ground reaction force measurements and stance times were recorded and compared.

Animals

12 adult horses.

Procedure

Data were obtained from 192 valid trials at the walk and 162 valid trials at the trot. Vertical, braking, and propulsive peak forces and impulses were measured. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were determined for velocity and stance time and all measured forces and impulses in the forelimbs and hind limbs. Trials were divided into distinct velocity ranges. Trials obtained at velocities within the established ranges were analyzed to evaluate changes in vertical, braking, and propulsive peak forces and impulses at differing speeds within the walk and trot gaits.

Results

At the walk and trot, a significant negative correlation was found between velocity and forelimb and hind limb stance times. Velocity and stance time were significantly correlated with many of the GRF and impulse measurements. Velocity was significantly correlated with vertical and braking forces in the hind limbs at the walk, with vertical force in the forelimbs at the trot, and with braking force in the forelimbs and hind limbs at the trot. Velocity and stance time correlated significantly with forelimb and hind limb vertical impulses. Forelimb and hind limb stance times decreased significantly as velocity increased. Hind limb braking force increased and forelimb and hind limb vertical impulses decreased significantly as walk velocity increased. Forelimb braking force increased significantly between velocity ranges at the trot.

Conclusions

Results of this study confirm that a significant negative linear correlation exists between subject velocity and stance times in clinically normal horses at the walk and trot. Significant correlations were also identified between velocity and many GRF measurements, indicating that subject velocity does influence the generation of GRF measurements in horses. Variation in subject velocity should be minimized when performing force-plate analysis in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:7-11)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association