Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 24 items for

  • Author or Editor: James Carmalt x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dental floating on the position of the mandible relative to the maxilla (a measure of rostrocaudal mobility [RCM] of the mandible) during extension and flexion of the head of horses.

Design—Randomized controlled blinded trial.

Animals—59 horses housed in 1 barn.

Procedure—Horses were formally randomized into a treatment (n = 33) or control (26) group. All horses were sedated, and the distance between rostral portions of the upper and lower incisor arcades were determined with the head fully extended and flexed at the poll (the difference in measurements represented the RCM of the mandible). The oral cavity was examined. For the treatment group, dental floating was performed, and the incisor arcade measurements were repeated.

Results—Dental correction resulted in a significant increase in RCM of the mandible in 31 of 33 horses. The mobility was greater in heavy horses than that detected in other breed classifications. Age and number of dental lesions did not significantly affect mobility before or after dental floating.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dental floating increased RCM of the mandible, but measurement of this variable was not an indicator of the number or extent of dental lesions, and no specific dental abnormality appeared to significantly affect RCM of the mandible in horses. In horses, measurement of RCM of the mandible can be used as a guide to determine whether dental correction is necessary; after dental floating, it can be used to ensure that irregularities of the occlusal surface have been corrected. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:666–669)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether occlusal angle of the premolar and molar teeth (ie, molar occlusal angle) was associated with feed digestibility, water balance, or fecal particle size in adult horses.

Design—Observational study.

Animals—40 pregnant mares ranging from 3 to 19 years old.

Procedure—The horses were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 feeding groups with 8 horses/group. Horses were sedated, and molar occlusal angle was measured with 2 methods. An oral examination was performed, and total number of dental abnormalities was recorded. Feed digestibility, water balance, and fecal particle size were measured 7 and 16 weeks later.

Results—Molar occlusal angle ranged from 6.3° to 19.3° and was not significantly associated with feed digestibility, water balance, or fecal particle size. The number of dental abnormalities was not associated with feed digestibility. Molar occlusal angle did not vary significantly with horse age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that molar occlusal angles between 6° and 19° do not adversely affect feed digestibility, water balance, or fecal particle size in adult horses. Additionally, there was no association between age and molar occlusal angle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:110–113)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize hypernatremia in neonatal elk calves, including clinical signs, incidence, physical examination findings, and possible causes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—26 neonatal elk calves were examined; 4 calves were evaluated twice, for a total of 30 examinations.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of diagnostic tests, and response to treatment. Hypernatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration > 153 mEq/L.

Results—Hypernatremia was diagnosed in 14 calves and was significantly associated with diarrhea, high WBC count, high anion gap, and high serum concentrations of albumin, chloride, creatinine, and urea. Hypernatremia was not significantly associated with survival, but high serum albumin concentration and rectal temperature were significantly associated with survival of calves. Animals given antibiotics and electrolyte solutions orally prior to evaluation were significantly more likely to die than those untreated. Dehydration was a common reason for evaluation but was not significantly associated with survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypernatremia was significantly associated with diarrhea. Treatment of diarrheic elk calves is often the same as that used in bovine calves with diarrhea; however, bovine calves are commonly hypo- or normonatremic. Our experience suggests that treatment protocols used in bovine calves are unsatisfactory for elk calves. The rate at which serum sodium concentration is reduced should be < 1.7 mEq Na/L/h to avoid development of neurologic signs associated with iatrogenically induced cerebral edema. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:68–70)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare strain at the bone-pin and cast-pin interfaces among 3 transfixation pin–cast constructs applied to equine forelimbs.

ANIMALS 15 forelimbs from 15 adult horses.

PROCEDURES Limbs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 constructs. Centrally threaded positive-profile pins were used for all constructs, and the most distal pin was placed just proximal to the epicondyles of the third metacarpal bone. Construct 1 consisted of two 6.3-mm-diameter pins spaced 4 cm apart at 30° to each other. Construct 2 was the same as construct 1 except the pins were placed 5 cm apart. Construct 3 consisted of four 4.8-mm-diameter pins spaced 2 cm apart and at 10° to one another. An osteotomy was created in the proximal phalanx. Strain gauges were attached to the cast and bone proximal to the pins and adjacent to the osteotomy. Limbs underwent compressive loading until failure. Simplified finite element models of constructs 1 and 3 were created to further evaluate strain and load transfer between the bone and cast.

RESULTS Strain did not differ between constructs 1 and 2. Compared with the 2-pin constructs, construct 3 had less strain at the bone-pin interface and more strain at the cast-pin interface, which indicated a greater amount of load was transferred to the cast of the 4-pin construct than the cast of the 2-pin constructs. Finite element modeling supported those findings.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the 4-pin construct was more effective in unloading the fractured bone than either 2-pin construct.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To characterize the 3-D geometry of the equine larynx replicating laryngeal hemiplegia and 4 surgical interventions by use of CT under steady-state airflow conditions. Secondly, to use fluid mechanic principles of flow through a constriction to establish the relationship between measured airflow geometries with impedance for each surgical procedure.

SAMPLE

10 cadaveric horse larynges.

PROCEDURES

While CT scans were performed, inhalation during exercise conditions was replicated for each of the following 5 conditions: laryngeal hemiplegia, left laryngoplasty with ventriculocordectomy, left laryngoplasty with ipsilateral ventriculocordectomy and arytenoid corniculectomy, corniculectomy, and partial arytenoidectomy for each larynx while CT scans were performed. Laryngeal impedance was calculated, and selected cross-sectional areas were measured along each larynx for each test. Measured areas and constriction characteristics were analyzed with respect to impedance using a multilevel, mixed-effects model.

RESULTS

Incident angle, entrance coefficient, outlet coefficient, friction coefficient, orifice thickness, and surgical procedure were significantly associated with upper airway impedance in the bivariable model. The multivariate model showed a significant influence of incident angle, entrance coefficient, and surgical procedure on impedance; however, the orifice thickness became nonsignificant within the model.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Laryngeal impedance was significantly associated with the entrance configuration for each procedure. This suggested that the equine upper airway, despite having a highly complex geometry, adheres to fluid dynamic principles applying to constrictions within pipe flow. These underlying flow characteristics may explain the clinical outcomes observed in some patients, and lead to areas of improvement in the treatment of obstructive upper airway disease in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare laryngeal impedance, in terms of air flow and pressure, following arytenoid corniculectomy (COR) versus 3 other airway interventions (left-sided laryngoplasty with ipsilateral ventriculocordectomy [LLP], LLP combined with COR [LLPCOR], and partial arytenoidectomy [PA]) performed on cadaveric equine larynges with simulated left recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) and to determine whether relative laryngeal collapse correlated with the interventions performed.

SAMPLE

28 cadaveric equine larynges.

PROCEDURES

Each larynx in states of simulated left RLN alone and with airway interventions in the order LLP, LLPCOR, COR, and PA was evaluated in a box model construct that replicated upper airway flow mechanics consistent with peak exercise in horses. Results for impedance, calculated from airflow and pressure changes, were compared between states for each larynx. Multivariable mixed-effects analysis controlling for repeated measures within larynx was performed to calculate the predicted mean impedance for each state.

RESULTS

Results indicated that tracheal adapter diameter, individual larynx properties, airway intervention, and relative laryngeal collapse affected laryngeal impedance. The LLP and LLPCOR interventions had the lowest impedance, whereas the COR and PA interventions did not differ substantially from the simulated left RLN state. Residual intraclass correlation of the model was 27.6 %.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although impedance was higher for the simulated left RLN with the COR intervention state than with the LLP intervention state, given the clinical success of PA for treating RLN in horses and the similar results for the COR and PA intervention states in the present study, the use of COR warrants further investigation. The residual interclass correlation suggested that individual laryngeal variation affected impedance and may have a clinical effect.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effect of routine dental floating on weight gain, body condition score, feed digestibility, and fecal particle size in pregnant mares fed various diets.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—56 pregnant mares.

Procedure—Mares were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 feed groups (n = 14 mares/group). All horses were sedated and an oral examination was performed, after which dental floating was performed on 7 horses in each group. Body weight was measured, and a body condition score was assigned before and at various times for 24 weeks after dental floating. Feed digestibility and fecal particle size were analyzed 7 and 19 weeks after dental floating.

Results—Weight gain, change in body condition score, feed digestibility, and fecal particle size were not significantly different between horses that underwent dental floating and untreated control horses. In contrast, weight gain was significantly associated with feed group. In the control horses, neither the number of dental lesions nor the presence of any particular type of lesion at the time of the initial oral examination was significantly associated with subsequent feed digestibility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dental floating does not result in significant short-term changes in body weight, body condition score, feed digestibility, or fecal particle size in healthy pregnant mares. Further studies are necessary to determine the clinical utility of regular dental floating in apparently healthy horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1889–1893)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Evaluation of the strength of the novel suture technique by comparison with a 2-interrupted suture technique.

SAMPLE

40 equine larynges.

PROCEDURES

40 larynges were used; 16 laryngoplasties were performed using the currently accepted 2-suture technique and 16 using the novel suture technique. These specimens were subjected to a single cycle to failure. Eight specimens were used to compare the rima glottidis area achieved with 2 different techniques.

RESULTS

The mean force to failure, as well as the rima glottidis area of both constructs, were not significantly different. The cricoid width did not have a significant effect on the force to failure.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our results suggest that both constructs are equally strong and can achieve a similar cross-sectional area of the rima glottidis. Laryngoplasty (“tie-back”) is currently the treatment of choice for horses with exercise intolerance due to recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. Failure to maintain the expected degree of arytenoid abduction post-surgery occurs in some horses. We believe this novel 2-loop pulley load-sharing suture technique can help achieve and, more importantly, maintain the desired degree of abduction during surgery.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the relationship between inflammatory responses of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint in clinically normal horses.

Animals—7 mature horses.

Procedures—In each horse, 1 TMJ and 1 MCP joint were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.0025 μg). The contralateral TMJ and MCP joint were injected with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Synovial fluid samples were collected from all 4 joints over 24 hours after injection. Concentrations of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and total protein were measured via immunoassay. Horses were assessed for clinical signs of joint inflammation at each time point.

Results—Concentrations of interleukin-6 were not significantly different between LPS-injected MCP joints and TMJs at any time point. Transforming growth factor-β concentrations were significantly increased in MCP joints, compared with concentrations in TMJs, at 12 and 24 hours after injection. Tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were significantly higher in LPS-injected TMJs than in LPS-injected MCP joints at 1 and 6 hours after injection. Total protein concentration did not differ significantly between LPS-injected MCP joints and TMJs. Injection of LPS induced clinical inflammation at all time points; additionally, 2 MCP joints (but no TMJs) had an inflammatory response to injection of saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The inflammatory response to LPS appeared to be attenuated more quickly in TMJs than in MCP joints of horses. The difference in response suggested that a lack of clinical osteoarthritis in the TMJ of horses could be attributable to a difference in cytokine response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research