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  • Author or Editor: James A. Flanders x
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Objective—To compare the incidence of behavior problems following tendonectomy or onychectomy in cats, as well as attitudes of owners following these procedures.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—18 cats that underwent tendonectomy and 39 cats that underwent onychectomy.

Procedure—Owners of cats that underwent tendonectomy or onychectomy between February 1993 and May 1998 were contacted by telephone and asked several questions regarding reasons for surgery as well as complications and behavioral changes in cats following surgery.

Results—The most common reason for considering tendonectomy or onychectomy was to avoid damage caused by the cat scratching household materials. Avoidance of injury to humans or animals was chosen more often by owners whose cats underwent onychectomy than those that underwent tendonectomy. Tendonectomy was more likely to have been recommended by veterinarians than onychectomy. Significantly more cats that underwent tendonectomy (67%) than onychectomy (44%) returned to normal activity within 3 days after surgery. Significant differences were not detected regarding behavior problems after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although tendonectomy and onychectomy involved some medical complications and behavior changes following surgery, owners had positive attitudes regarding both surgeries after the immediate postoperative period. Tendonectomy may be a humane alternative to onychectomy, although owners need to be advised that nail trimming is still necessary in cats after surgery. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:43–47)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize the association between peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) or congenital central diaphragmatic hernia (CCDH) and ductal plate malformations (DPMs) in dogs and cats.


18 dogs and 18 cats with PPDH or CCDH and 19 dogs and 18 cats without PPDH or CCDH.


Evaluation of clinical details verified PPDH or CCDH and survival times. Histologic features of nonherniated liver samples were used to categorize DPM. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-19 distinguished bile duct profiles per portal tract and for Ki-67–assessed cholangiocyte proliferation. Histologic features of herniated liver samples from PPDH or CCDH were compared with those of pathological controls (traumatic diaphragmatic hernia, n = 6; liver lobe torsion, 6; ischemic hepatopathy, 2).


DPM occurred in 13 of 18 dogs with the proliferative-like phenotype predominating and in 15 of 18 cats with evenly distributed proliferative-like and Caroli phenotypes. Congenital hepatic fibrosis DPM was noted in 3 dogs and 2 cats and renal DPM in 3 dogs and 3 cats. No signalment, clinical signs, or clinicopathologic features discriminated DPM. Kaplan Meier survival curves were similar in dogs and cats. Bile duct profiles per portal tract in dogs (median, 5.0; range, 1.4 to 100.8) and cats (6.6; 1.9 to 11.0) with congenital diaphragmatic hernias significantly exceeded those in healthy dogs (1.4; 1.2 to 1.6) and cats (2.3; 1.7 to 2.6). Animals with DPM lacked active cholangiocyte proliferation. Histologic features characterizing malformative bile duct profiles yet without biliary proliferation were preserved in herniated liver lobes in animals with DPM.


DPM was strongly associated with PPDH and CCDH. Because DPM can impact health, awareness of its coexistence with PPDH or CCDH should prompt biopsy of nonherniated liver tissue during surgical correction of PPDH and CCDH.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the type of atrial fibrillation induced by use of 2 pacing protocols during fentanyl and pentobarbital anesthesia before and after administration of atropine and to determine the organization of electrical activity in the left and right atria during atrial fibrillation in German Shepherd Dogs.

Animals—7 German Shepherd Dogs.

Procedures—Extrastimulus and pacedown protocols were performed before and after atropine administration. Monophasic action potential spectral entropy and mean dominant frequency were calculated during atrial fibrillation.

Results—Atrial fibrillation occurred spontaneously in 6 of 7 dogs. All 7 dogs had atrial fibrillation induced. Sustained atrial fibrillation occurred in 13 of 25 (52%) episodes induced by the extrastimulus protocol and in 2 of 12 episodes of atrial fibrillation induced by pacedown. After atropine administration, sustained atrial fibrillation did not occur, and the duration of the nonsustained atrial fibrillation (6 episodes in 2 dogs of 1 to 26 seconds) was significantly shorter than before atropine administration (25 episodes in 7 dogs of 1 to 474 seconds). The left atrium (3.67 ± 0.08) had lower spectral entropy than the right atrium (3.81 ± 0.03), indicating more electrical organization in the left atrium. The mean dominant frequency was higher in the left atrium in 3 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Atrial fibrillation developed spontaneously and was induced in German Shepherd Dogs under fentanyl and pentobarbital anesthesia. Electrical activity was more organized in the left atrium than in the right atrium as judged by use of spectral entropy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research