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  • Author or Editor: J. C. Thurmon x
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Summary

Hemodynamic and analgesic effects of medetomidine (30 μg/kg of body weight, im), atropine (0.044 mg/kg, im), and propofol (2 mg/kg, IV, as a bolus, and 165 μg/kg/min, Iv, for 60 minutes, as an infusion) were evaluated in 6 healthy adult Beagles. Catheters were placed while the dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. Administration of isoflurane was then discontinued, and dogs were allowed to breath oxygen until end-tidal isoflurane concentration was ≤ 0.5%. At this time, baseline measurements were recorded and medetomidine and atropine were administered. Ten minutes later, the bolus of propofol was given and the infusion was begun. Analgesia was evaluated with a tail clamp test and by use of a direct-current nerve stimulator. Sinoatrial and atrioventricular blockade developed in all 6 dogs within 2 minutes of administration of medetomidine and atropine, but disappeared within 10 minutes. Apnea did not develop after administration of propofol. Analgesia was strong and consistent throughout the entire 60-minute period of propofol infusion. Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.05) increased systemic vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output, compared with baseline values. Propofol infusion appeared to alleviate medetomidine induced vasoconstriction. Recovery was smooth and uncomplicated. All dogs were able to walk normally at a mean time (± sem) of 88.2 ± 20.6 minutes after termination of propofol infusion. It was concluded that medetomidine, atropine, and propofol, as given in the present study, is a safe combination of anesthetic drugs for use in healthy Beagles.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Eight dogs (12.5 to 21.5 kg) were assigned at random to each of 3 groups that were not given glycopyrrolate (hs, hx, hm) and to each of 3 groups that were given glycopyrrolate (hgs, hgx, hgm). Dogs were anesthetized with halothane (1.31% end-tidal concentration), and ventilation was controlled (PCO2 35 to 40 mm of Hg end-tidal concentration). Glycopyrrolate was administered iv and im at a dosage of 11 μg/kg of body weight, each. Saline solution, xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, im, or medetomidine (15 μg/ kg, im) was administered 10 minutes after baseline arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ade) determination. Redetermination of the ade at the same infusion rate was started 10 minutes after drug administration. Arrhythmogenic dose was determined by constant infusion of epinephrine at rates of 1.0 and 2.5 μg/kg/min. The ade was defined as the total dose of epinephrine inducing at least 4 ectopic ventricular depolarizations within 15 seconds during a 3-minute infusion or within 1 minute after the end of the infusion. Total dose was calculated as the product of infusion rate and time to arrhythmia. Statistical analysis of the differences between baseline ade and posttreatment ade for groups hs, hx, and hm was performed by use of one-way anova. Mean ± sem baseline ade values for groups hs, hx, and hm were 1.50 ± 0.11, 1.49 ± 0.10, and 1.57 ± 0.22 pg/kg, respectively, and for groups hgs, hgx, and hgm were 3.37 ± 0.61, 3.10 ± 0.75, and 3.04 ± 0.94 pg/kg, respectively. Differences for groups hs, hx, and hm were – 0.02 ± 0.15, – 0.00 ± 0.14, and – 0.21 ± 0.17 μg/kg, respectively, and for groups hgs, hgx, and hgm, were – 0.59 ± 0.26, – 0.41 ± 0.15, and – 0.58 ± 0.20 μg/kg, respectively. Differences among groups hs, hx, and hm, or among groups hgs, hgx, and hgm were not significant. We conclude that without and with cholinergic blockade in halothane-anesthetized dogs: preanesthetic dosages of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, im) or medetomidine (15 μg/kg, im) do not enhance arrhythmogenicity, and at these dosages, there is no difference in the arrhythmogenic potential of either α2-adrenoceptor agonist.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Eight dogs (body weight, 12.5 to 21.5 kg) were assigned at random to each of 3 treatment groups (is, ix, im) that were not given glycopyrrolate and to each of 3 groups that were given glycopyrrolate (igs, igx, igm). Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane (1.95% end-tidal concentration), and ventilation was controlled (PCO2 , 35 to 40 mm of Hg end-tidal concentration). Glycopyrrolate was administered iv and im at a dosage of 11 μg/kg of body weight, each. Saline solution, xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, im), or medetomidine (15 μg/kg, im) was administered 10 minutes after baseline ade determination. Redetermination of the ade at the same infusion rate was started 10 minutes after drug administration. Arrhythmogenic dose was determined by constant infusion of epinephrine at rates of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/kg/min. The ade was defined as the total dose of epinephrine that induced at least 4 ectopic ventricular depolarizations within 15 seconds during a 3-minute infusion, or within 1 minute after the end of the infusion. Total dose was calculated as the product of infusion rate and time to arrhythmia. Statistical analysis of the differences between baseline and treatment ade values was performed by use of one-way anova. Mean ± sem baseline ade values for groups is, ix, and im were 1.55 ± 0.23, 161 ± 0.28, and 1.95 ± 0.65 μg/kg, respectively. Differences for groups is, ix, and im were – 0.12 ± 0.05, – O.31 ± 0.40, and – 0.17 ± 0.26, respectively. Differences for groups igs, igx, and igm could not be calculated because arrhythmias satisfying the ade criteria were not observed at the maximal infusion rate of 5.0 μg/kg/min. Differences among groups is, ix, and im were not significant. We conclude that in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs: preanesthetic dosages of xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, im) or medetomidine (15 μg/kg, im) do not enhance arrhythmogenicity, and at these dosages, there is no difference in the arrhythmogenic potential of either α2-adrenergic receptor agonist.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function and serum total and ionized calcium concentrations in horses, and to determine whether administration of calcium gluconate would attenuate these effects.

Animals

6 clinically normal adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure

Catheters were inserted for measurement of arterial blood pressures, pulmonary arterial blood pressures, right ventricular pressure (for determination of myocardial contractility), right atrial pressure, and cardiac output and for collection of arterial blood samples. Anesthesia was then induced with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and maintained with halothane or isoflurane. An IV infusion of calcium gluconate was begun 75 minutes after anesthetic induction; dosage of calcium gluconate was 0.1 mg/kg of body weight/min for the first 15 minutes, 0.2 mg/kg/min for the next 15 minutes, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for an additional 15 minutes. Data were collected before, during, and after administration of calcium gluconate.

Results

Halothane and isoflurane decreased myocardial contractility, cardiac index, and mean arterial pressure, but halothane caused greater depression than isoflurane. Calcium gluconate attenuated the anesthetic-induced depression in cardiac index, stroke index, and maximal rate of increase in right ventricular pressure when horses were anesthetized with isoflurane. When horses were anesthetized with halothane, a higher dosage of calcium gluconate was required to attenuate the depression in stroke index and maximal rate of increase in right ventricular pressure; cardiac index was not changed with calcium administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

IV administration of calcium gluconate may support myocardial function in horses anesthetized with isoflurane. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1430–1435)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the most repeatable method for evaluating right ventricular relaxation rate in horses and to determine and compare effects of isoflurane or halothane with and without the added influence of intravenously administered calcium gluconate on right ventricular relaxation rates in horses.

Animals

6 Thoroughbred horses from 2 to 4 years old.

Procedure

6 models (2 for monoexponential decay with zero asymptote, 3 for monoexponential decay with variable asymptote, and 1 for biexponential decay) for determining right ventricular relaxation rate were assessed in conscious and anesthetized horses. The 2 methods yielding the most repeatable results then were used to determine right ventricular relaxation rates in horses anesthetized with isoflurane or halothane before, during, and after IV administration of calcium gluconate. Right ventricular pressure was measured, using a catheter-tip high-fidelity pressure transducer, and results were digitized at 500 Hz from minimum rate of change in ventricular pressure.

Results

2 models that used monoexponential decay with zero asymptote repeatedly produced an estimate for relaxation rate and were used to analyze effects of anesthesia and calcium gluconate administration on relaxation rate. Isoflurane and halothane each prolonged right ventricular relaxation rate, with greater prolongation evident in halothane-anesthetized horses. Calcium gluconate attenuated the anesthesia-induced prolongation in right ventricular relaxation rate, with greater response obtained in isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Right ventricular relaxation rate in horses is assessed best by use of a monoexponential decay model with zero asymptote and nonlinear regression. Intravenous administration of calcium gluconate to isoflurane-anesthetized horses best preserves myocardial relaxant function. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:872–879)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research