Objective—To describe the operative technique for single-port laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy (SPLC) in dogs and cats and evaluate clinical outcome for patients that underwent the procedure.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—25 client-owned dogs (n = 22) and cats (3).
Procedures—Dogs and cats that underwent SPLC with 3 commercially available single-port devices between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively identified through a multi-institutional medical records review. Surgery was performed via a single-port device placed through a 1.5- to 3.0-cm abdominal incision either at the region of the umbilicus or caudal to the right 13th rib. The cryptorchidectomy was performed with graspers, a bipolar vessel sealing device, and a 30° telescope.
Results—SPLC was performed with a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port (n = 15), a multitrocar wound-retractor access system (8), or a metal resterilizable single-port access device (2). Median age was 365 days (range, 166 to 3,285 days). Median body weight was 18.9 kg (41.6 lb; range, 1.3 to 70 kg [2.9 to 154 lb]). Median surgical time was 38 minutes (range, 15 to 70 minutes). Thirty-two testes were removed (12 left, 6 right, and 7 bilateral). Four patients had 1 additional abdominal surgical procedure performed concurrently during SPLC. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that SPLC can be performed in a wide range of dogs and cats with cryptorchidism and can be combined with other elective laparoscopic surgical procedures. The SPLC technique was associated with a low morbidity rate and provided a potentially less invasive alternative to traditional open and multiport laparoscopic techniques.
A 1-year-old externally sexually intact female Great Dane was referred for further evaluation of abnormal and underdeveloped internal reproductive organs.
Physical examination findings included a cranioventrally displaced vulva and a grade 2/6 left apical systolic heart murmur. No uterus or ovaries were identified during abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography with retrograde vaginourethrography revealed an underdeveloped uterus and possible left intra-abdominal gonad. Karyotyping revealed mixed sex chromosomes (70% XY and 30% XX). Analysis of a serum sample yielded positive results for anti-Müllerian hormone; other findings included mid range estradiol concentration (48.2 pg/mL [within reference intervals for sexually intact and neutered males and females]), low progesterone concentration (< 0.2 ng/mL [within reference intervals for anestrous females]), and low testosterone concentration (< 20 ng/dL [similar to the expected concentration in neutered males]). Overall, the results of the sex hormone analyses were consistent with findings for either a sexually intact female or a neutered male dog. The dog's cardiac structure and function were echocardiographically normal.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The dog was anesthetized and underwent laparoscopic gonadectomy. The gonads, although abnormal and underdeveloped, were readily identified intraoperatively and successfully removed. On the basis of histologic findings, the removed gonads were confirmed to be rudimentary testicles. The dog recovered from anesthesia and surgery without complications.
Laparoscopic surgery was effective for visualization of abnormal and hypoplastic reproductive organs when abdominal ultrasonography and CT were of limited diagnostic usefulness, and laparoscopic surgery allowed straightforward gonadectomy in a 78,XX/78,XY chimeric dog.
To determine the optimal intercostal space (ICS) for thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery for lung lobectomy in cats.
8 cat cadavers.
Cadavers were placed in lateral recumbency. A 5-cm minithoracotomy incision was made in the middle third of ICS 4 through 7 on the left side and 4 through 8 on the right side, and a wound retractor device was placed. A camera port was made in the middle third of ICS 9. Each lung lobe was sequentially exteriorized at each respective ICS. A thoracoabdominal stapler was placed to simulate a lung lobectomy, and distance from the stapler anvil to the hilus was measured.
For the left cranial lung lobe, there was no significant difference in median distance from the stapler anvil to the pulmonary hilus for ICS 4 through 6. Simulated lobectomy of the left caudal lung lobe performed at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 4 and 7. Simulated lobectomy of the right cranial and right middle lung lobes performed at ICS 4 and 5 resulted in a significantly shorter distance, compared with lobectomy performed at ICS 7. Simulated lobectomy of the accessory and right caudal lung lobes at ICS 5 and 6 resulted in a significantly shorter distance than for lobectomy performed at ICS 8.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
An optimal ICS for a minithoracotomy incision was determined for thoracoscopic-assisted lung lobectomy in cats.
4 cats (6 to 9 months old) were evaluated because of clinical signs consistent with a portosystemic shunt (PSS).
Among the 4 cats, 3 had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, head pressing, disorientation, and obtundation. One cat was evaluated because of urethral obstruction; a retrieved urethral stone was determined to have urate composition. Clinicopathologic findings (hypoproteinemia, low BUN concentration, and high serum bile acids concentration) were consistent with a PSS in all cats. A diagnosis of intrahepatic PSS (IHPSS) was made for all cats on the basis of ultrasonographic and CT findings.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All cats underwent percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE). No major intraprocedural complications were encountered, and all cats were discharged from the hospital. For the 3 cats that were presented with neurologic signs, an evaluation performed at 12, 14, or 48 months after the procedure revealed resolution of the neurologic signs, and owners reported that the behavior of each cat appeared normal. One cat that initially had neurologic and gastrointestinal signs had lower urinary tract signs after PTCE and developed an acquired extrahepatic PSS.
Although IHPSSs in cats are uncommon, the outcomes of PTCE for the 4 cats of the present report suggested that this treatment may benefit cats with an IHPSS. No short-term complications were encountered, and all cats had improvement in clinical signs following PTCE, although an acquired extrahepatic PSS was later identified in 1 cat. Further investigation of the use of endovascular techniques for the treatment of IHPSSs in cats and other species is warranted.
Objective—To determine the efficacy of decontamination and sterilization of a disposable port intended for use during single-incision laparoscopy.
Sample—5 material samples obtained from each of 3 laparoscopic surgery ports.
Procedures—Ports were assigned to undergo decontamination and ethylene oxide sterilization without bacterial inoculation (negative control port), with bacterial inoculation (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium fortuitum) and without decontamination and sterilization (positive control port), or with bacterial inoculation followed by decontamination and ethylene oxide sterilization (treated port). Each port underwent testing 5 times; during each time, a sample of the foam portion of each port was obtained and bacteriologic culture testing was performed. Bacteriologic culture scores were determined for each port sample.
Results—None of the treated port samples had positive bacteriologic culture results. All 5 positive control port samples had positive bacteriologic culture results. One negative control port sample had positive bacteriologic culture results; a spore-forming Bacillus sp organism was cultured from that port sample, which was thought to be an environmental contaminant. Bacteriologic culture scores for the treated port samples were significantly lower than those for the positive control port samples. Bacteriologic culture scores for the treated port samples were not significantly different from those for negative control port samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated standard procedures for decontamination and sterilization of a single-use port intended for use during singleincision laparoscopic surgery were effective for elimination of inoculated bacteria. Reuse of this port may be safe for laparoscopic surgery of animals.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopy versus exploratory laparotomy for the diagnosis of specific lesions in dogs with suspected gastrointestinal obstruction.
DESIGN Controlled trial.
ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with physical and radiographic findings consistent with gastrointestinal obstruction.
PROCEDURES Single-incision laparoscopy with intracorporeal and extracorporeal examination of the gastrointestinal tract was performed by 1 surgeon. Immediately afterward, exploratory laparotomy was performed by a second surgeon. Accessibility and gross appearance of organs, surgical diagnoses, incision lengths, procedure duration, and complications were compared between diagnostic techniques.
RESULTS Mean (95% confidence interval) incision length was 4.9 cm (3.9 to 5.9 cm) for laparoscopy and 16.4 cm (14.0 to 18.7 cm) for exploratory laparotomy. Mean (95% confidence interval) procedure duration was 36.8 minutes (31.6 to 41.2 minutes) and 12.8 minutes (11.4 to 14.3 minutes), respectively. Diagnoses of the cause of obstruction were the same with both methods. In 13 dogs, the laparoscopic examination was successfully completed, and in the other 3, it was incomplete. In 4 dogs in which laparoscopy was successful, conversion to exploratory laparotomy or considerable extension of the laparoscopic incision would have been required to allow subsequent surgical treatment of identified lesions. No dogs developed major complications, and minor complication rates were similar between procedures.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laparoscopy was feasible and clinically applicable in dogs with suspected gastrointestinal obstruction. Careful patient selection and liberal criteria for conversion to an open surgical approach are recommended when laparoscopy is considered for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions in dogs.
To evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound-guided, temporary, percutaneous T-fastener gastropexy (TG) and gastrostomy catheter (GC) placement for providing sustained gastric decompression in dogs with acute gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) and to compare findings with those of trocarization.
16 dogs with GDV.
Dogs were randomly assigned to undergo gastric decompression by means of percutaneous trocarization (trocar group; n = 8) or temporary TG and GC placement (TTG+GC group; 8) with ultrasound guidance. The gastric volvulus was then surgically corrected, and the decompression sites were examined. Outcomes were compared between groups.
The proportion of dogs with successful decompression did not differ significantly between the TTG+GC (6/8) and trocar (7/8) groups; median procedure duration was 3.3 and 3.7 minutes, respectively. After the failed attempts in the TTG+GC group, the procedure was modified to include ultrasound guidance during T-fastener placement. The decrease in intragastric pressure by 5 minutes after trocar or GC insertion was similar between groups. For dogs in the TTG+GC group, no significant difference in intragastric pressure was identified between 5 and 60 minutes after GC insertion. Complications included inadvertent splenic or jejunal placement in 2 dogs (TTG+GC group) and malpositioned and ineffective trocar placement in 1 dog (trocar group). All dogs survived for at least 2 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ultrasound-guided, temporary, percutaneous TG and GC placement was safe and effective at providing sustained gastric decompression in dogs with GDV, suggesting that this technique would be ideal for dogs in which surgical delays are anticipated or unavoidable.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of noncontrast abdominal CT and abdominal ultrasonography for the detection of mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction in dogs and compare intestinal diameter ratios between dogs with and without obstruction.
DESIGN Controlled trial.
ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with physical and radiographic findings consistent with mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction.
PROCEDURES Abdominal ultrasonography and CT were performed for all dogs, followed by laparoscopy and exploratory laparotomy. Time required for image acquisition and presence and location of gastrointestinal obstruction were assessed with both imaging modalities. Findings were compared with those of exploratory surgery. Maximum and minimum intestinal diameters were recorded on CT scans; values were converted to a ratio and compared between dogs with and without obstruction.
RESULTS Results of abdominal CT and exploratory surgery for the diagnosis of mechanical obstruction agreed for all 16 dogs; 10 dogs had complete obstruction, 3 had partial obstruction, and 3 had no obstruction. In 1 dog with functional ileus, abdominal ultrasonography resulted in an incorrect diagnosis of mechanical obstruction. Median (interquartile range) image acquisition time for abdominal CT (2.5 minutes [2.0 to 3.8 minutes]) was markedly and significantly shorter than that for ultrasonography (26.0 minutes [22.0 to 35.8 minutes]). In both dorsal and transverse CT planes, dogs with gastrointestinal obstruction (partial or complete) had significantly larger intestinal diameter ratios than dogs without obstruction.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Abdominal CT was feasible, rapid, and accurate for the diagnosis of mechanical obstruction in dogs with clinical signs and physical examination findings consistent with partial or complete gastrointestinal obstruction.
OBJECTIVE To develop a device intended for gradual venous occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks.
SAMPLE Silicone tubing filled with various inorganic salt and polyacrylic acid (PAA) formulations and mounted within a polypropylene or polyether ether ketone (PEEK) outer ring.
PROCEDURES 15 polypropylene prototype rings were initially filled with 1 of 5 formulations and placed in PBSS. In a second test, 10 polypropylene and 7 PEEK prototype rings were filled with 1 formulation and placed in PBSS. In a third test, 2 formulations were loaded into 6 PEEK rings each, placed in physiologic solution, and incubated. In all tests, ring luminal diameter, outer diameter, and luminal area were measured over 6 weeks.
RESULTS In the first test, 2 formulations had the greatest changes in luminal area and diameter, and 1 of those had a greater linear swell rate than the other had. In the second test, 6 of 7 PEEK rings and 6 of 10 polypropylene rings closed to a luminal diamater < 1 mm within 6 weeks. Polypropylene rings had a greater increase in outer diameter than did PEEK rings between 4.5 and 6 weeks. In the third test, 11 of 12 PEEK rings gradually closed to a luminal diameter < 1 mm within 6 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A PAA and inorganic salt formulation in a prototype silicone and polymer ring resulted in gradual occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks in vitro. Prototype PEEK rings provided more reliable closure than did polypropylene rings.
OBJECTIVE To describe the operative technique and perioperative outcome for laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy (LAS) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with naturally occurring disease of the spleen treated by means of LAS between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of surgical technique, intraoperative findings including results of abdominal exploration and staging, concurrent surgical procedures, complications, histopathologic diagnoses, duration of postoperative hospitalization, and perioperative outcome were recorded. The perioperative period was defined as the time from hospital admission for LAS until discharge or death (within the same visit).
RESULTS All dogs underwent initial abdominal exploration and staging via multiple 5-mm laparoscopic ports (n = 2) or a single commercially available multichannel port (16), followed by minilaparotomy with insertion of a wound retraction device, progressive exteriorization of the spleen, sealing of hilar vessels, and splenectomy. Splenectomy was performed for treatment of a splenic mass (n = 15), suspected neoplasia (2), or refractory immune-mediated disease (1). Median size (width × length) of splenic masses was 5 × 5 cm (range, 1.6 to 11.0 cm × 1.5 to 14.5 cm). Complications were limited to minor intraoperative hemorrhage in 1 dog; no patient required conversion to open laparotomy.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that LAS was technically feasible in dogs and not associated with major complications. Further evaluation is required; however, in appropriately selected patients, LAS may offer the benefits of a minimally invasive technique, including a smaller incision and improved illumination and magnification during exploration and staging.