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Abstract

Objective—To calculate the monthly incidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a population of military working dogs during a 5-year period and determine whether there was an association with synoptic climatologic indices.

Sample Population—Medical records of all military working dogs housed at Lackland Air Force Base,Tex, from Jan 1, 1993 to Dec 31, 1997.

Procedure—Confirmed cases of GDV were identified from evaluation of medical records and used to calculate incidence of GDV. Factor analysis of local climatologic data was used to classify each day into 1 of 8 meteorologically homogeneous types of days for this location. Occurrence of GDV was compared with frequency of occurrence of synoptic climatologic days.

Results—48 cases of GDV were identified from January 1993 through December 1997. Mean monthly incidence was 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs at risk (range, 0 to 18.5 cases/1,000 dogs; median, 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs). A seasonal increase in incidence of GDV was detected, because half of the episodes were during November, December, and January. An association with a specific synoptic climatologic day was not detected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Seasonal fluctuations in incidence of GDV may be associated with external factors that precipitate physiologic changes resulting in GDV. Although a specific cause-effect relationship was not documented, clinicians must be alert for the potential of seasonal variation in incidence of GDV and accordingly heighten their index of suspicion for the condition, particularly in populations of dogs that are predisposed to development of GDV. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:47–52)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-strand suture repairs on the biomechanical properties of canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs in an ex vivo model.

SAMPLE

56 cadaveric gastrocnemius musculotendinous units from 28 adult large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were randomly assigned to 4 repair groups (2-, 4-, 6- or 8-strand suture technique; n = 14/group). Following tenotomy, repairs were performed with the assigned number of strands of 2-0 polypropylene suture in a simple interrupted pattern. Biomechanical testing was performed. Yield, peak, and failure loads, the incidence of 1- and 3-mm gap formation, forces associated with gap formation, and failure modes were compared among groups.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure forces differed significantly among groups, with significantly greater force required as the number of suture strands used for tendon repair increased. The force required to create a 1- or 3-mm gap between tendon ends also differed among groups and increased significantly with number of strands used. All constructs failed by mode of suture pull-through.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that increasing the number of suture strands crossing the repair site significantly increases the tensile strength of canine gastrocnemius tendon repair constructs and their resistance to gap formation. Future studies are needed to assess the effects of multistrand suture patterns on tendon glide function, blood supply, healing, and long-term clinical function in dogs to inform clinical decision-making.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of presurgical storage conditions on leakage pressures of enterotomy sites closed with unidirectional barbed suture material in fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed cadaveric canine jejunal specimens.

SAMPLE

36 grossly normal jejunal segments obtained from 4 dog cadavers.

PROCEDURES

9 jejunal segments were harvested immediately from each euthanized dog and randomly assigned to be tested within 4 hours after collection (fresh segments), stored at 4°C for 24 hours before testing (chilled segments), or stored at −20°C for 7 days and thawed at 21°C for 6 hours before testing (frozen-thawed segments). For leakage pressure testing, a 3-cm-long antimesenteric enterotomy was performed and repaired with 3-0 unidirectional barbed suture material in a simple continuous pattern in each segment. Time to complete the enterotomy, initial leakage pressure, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location were recorded for each segment.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD initial leakage pressure for fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed segments was 52.8 ± 14.9 mm Hg, 51.8 ± 11.9 mm Hg, and 33.3 ± 7.7 mm Hg, respectively. Frozen-thawed segments had significantly lower mean initial leakage pressure, compared with findings for fresh or chilled segments. Time to complete the enterotomy, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location did not differ among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Leak pressure testing of cadaveric jejunal segments that are fresh or chilled at 4°C for 24 hours is recommended for enterotomy studies involving barbed suture material in dogs. Freezing and thawing of cadaveric jejunal tissues prior to investigative use is not recommended because leak pressure data may be falsely low.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a bovine albumin–derivatized glutaraldehyde (BA-DG) biopolymer sealant on leakage pressures of intestinal anastomoses in jejunal tissue collected from fresh canine cadavers and to evaluate changes in circumference and cross-sectional area of the anastomotic site resulting from sealant application.

SAMPLE 24 jejunal anastomoses from 4 fresh canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Jejunal tissue specimens were collected, and adjacent segment anastomoses were created within 12 hours after euthanasia of each dog. The tissue constructs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups in which sealant was or was not applied. The outer circumference of all anastomoses in the sealant group was measured before and after application of the sealant; the cross-sectional area at the anastomotic site was then calculated at each time point. Tissue constructs were pressure tested, and leakage pressure and site were recorded. All testing was completed within 24 hours after tissue collection.

RESULTS Compared with preapplication findings, there were no significant changes in outer circumference or cross-sectional area at the anastomotic site after sealant application. Leakage pressures in the sealant group were significantly higher than those in the no-sealant group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of surgical sealant on fresh canine cadaver jejunal anastomoses resulted in significantly higher leakage pressure at the anastomotic site; no immediate tissue deformation of the outer circumference or cross-sectional area occurred after sealant application. Future in vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate the effects of this sealant and potential benefits for clinical patients undergoing enterectomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, morphine, dexmedetomidine, and a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Design—Randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

Animals—44 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Procedures—Dogs received intra-articular injections of saline solution (0.2 mL/kg [0.09 mL/lb]), morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]), dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg [1.14 μg/lb]), or a combination of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg/kg). Intra-articular injections of the stifle joint were performed after completion of the corrective osteotomy procedure, just prior to skin closure. Signs of pain were assessed every 2 hours thereafter on the basis of mean behavioral and objective pain scores. Dogs with pain scores exceeding predetermined thresholds were given hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], SC) as rescue analgesia.

Results—Time to rescue analgesia did not significantly differ between dogs that underwent TTA versus TPLO. No significant difference in time to rescue analgesia was found among dogs receiving intra-articular injections of dexmedetomidine (median, 6 hours; range, 2 to 10 hours), morphine (median, 7 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours), or saline solution (median, 5 hours; range, 4 to 10 hours). However, time to rescue analgesia for dogs receiving intra-articular injection of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination (median, 10 hours; range, 6 to 14 hours) was significantly longer than the time to rescue analgesia for other treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-articular administration of the morphine-dexmedetomidine combination provided longer-lasting postoperative analgesia, compared with either morphine or dexmedetomidine alone, in dogs undergoing TTA or TPLO. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1291–1297)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the preparedness of small animal veterinary personnel to communicate with Spanish-speaking pet owners with limited English-language proficiency (LEP).

DESIGN

Cross-sectional telephone survey.

SAMPLE

Data from 383 small animal veterinary practices.

PROCEDURES

Telephone surveys were conducted with veterinarians and office or practice managers from a random sample of US small animal veterinary practices in 10 states to estimate the number of Spanish-speaking pet owners with LEP visiting these practices, proportion of practices that used services to facilitate communication with Spanish-speaking clients with LEP, and degree of veterinarian satisfaction with their communication with those clients.

RESULTS

Responses were obtained from 383 of 1,245 (31%) eligible practices, of which 340 (89%) had Spanish-speaking clients with LEP and 200 (52%) had such clients on a weekly basis. Eight percent of practices had veterinary personnel who were conversant or fluent in spoken Spanish. Veterinarians who depended on clients' friends or family to translate were significantly less satisfied with client communication than were those who could converse in Spanish with clients directly. Availability of Spanish-speaking staff and offering of Spanish-language resources were associated with an increase in the number of Spanish-speaking clients with LEP seen on a weekly basis. Industry- and practice-generated Spanish-language materials were offered at 32% (124/383) and 21% (81/383) of practices, respectively; 329 (86%) practices had no Spanish-language marketing.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Opportunities were identified for improving communication with pet owners with LEP in the veterinary clinical setting, which could ultimately positively impact patient well-being and client compliance.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize patterns of dog and cat ownership and veterinary service use among Latino dog and cat owners with various degrees of English-language proficiency.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional telephone survey.

SAMPLE

Data from 393 Latino pet owners.

PROCEDURES

Telephone surveys were conducted with Latino dog and cat owners from a random sample of US households to determine the number of dogs and cats owned, factors associated with veterinary service use, and satisfaction with veterinary care.

RESULTS

393 of 1,026 (38.3%) respondents were pet owners. Two hundred fifty-nine of 330 (78.5%) dog owners and 70 of 115 (60.9%) cat owners reported taking their pet to the veterinarian in the past 12 months, most commonly for vaccination or examination or because of illness. Respondents were most satisfied with veterinary care provided, least satisfied with cost, and moderately satisfied with quality of communication. English-language proficiency was not significantly associated with whether owners sought veterinary care. A large proportion of respondents who wanted to receive pet health information in Spanish described themselves as speaking English well or very well.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although having limited proficiency in English was not associated with Latino pet owners seeking veterinary care, opportunities exist for veterinary personnel to improve communications with these clients. Personnel can assess their clients' language needs by asking each about the language in which they would prefer to receive their pet's health information.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of eyelid manipulation and manual jugular compression on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in clinically normal dogs.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—30 dogs (57 eyes) without diseases or medications that affect IOP.

Procedures—An applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP during eyelid manipulation or jugular compression. Six manipulations were used in each eye, including minimal eyelid manipulation, maximal dorsoventral extension of the eyelids, lateral eyelid extension, manual compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein, manual compression of both jugular veins, and lateral eyelid extension with manual compression of both jugular veins. Skull type and position of globe in the orbit were recorded.

Results—The 2 manipulations that caused the greatest significant increase in mean IOP were lateral eyelid extension with compression of both jugular veins (difference from baseline IOP, 17.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 19.5 mm Hg) and lateral eyelid extension alone (16.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14.6 to 18.4 mm Hg). Dorsoventral eyelid extension (6.42 mm Hg; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.3 mm Hg) and compression of both jugular veins alone (3.0 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.0 mm Hg) significantly increased mean IOP, compared with baseline. Compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein increased mean IOP (0.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, −1.6 to 2.2 mm Hg) from baseline, but not significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Traction on the eyelids or pressure on both jugular veins can significantly increase IOP values as measured by use of applanation tonometry in clinically normal dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio assessment provides an estimate of urine protein excretion (UPE) over a 24-hour period in horses and ponies, establish a preliminary UP:C ratio reference range, and determine UP:C ratio variation over time in healthy equids.

Animals—11 female horses and 6 female ponies.

Procedures—Urine was collected from all equids at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Total 24-hour UPE (mg of protein/kg of body weight) and UP:C ratio were determined; these variables were also assessed in aliquots of urine collected at 4-hour intervals. On 2 additional days, urine samples were also obtained from 6 horses (1 sample/horse/d) to determine day-to-day variation in UP:C ratio. Correlation between 4-hour or 24-hour UPE and UP:C ratio values was assessed. Reference ranges for 24-hour UPE, 24-hour UP:C ratio, and 4-hour UP:C ratios were calculated as central 95th percentiles of observed values.

Results—Mean 24-hour UPE (4.28 ± 2.99 mg/kg) and 24-hour UP:C ratio (0.0 to 0.37) had excellent correlation (R = 0.826; P < 0.001) in both horses and ponies; analysis of 4-hour data also revealed good correlation (R = 0.782; P < 0.001) with these variables. Calculated UPE and UP:C ratio reference ranges were similar to established ranges in other species. Day-to-day variability in UP:C ratio was minimal, and all results were within the reference range calculated by use of the 24-hour urine samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Assessment of the UP:C ratio appears to be a reliable method for estimating 24-hour UPE in horses and ponies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of bite distance of an interlocking horizontal mattress epitendinous suture (IHMES) from the repair site on tensile strength of canine tendon repairs.

SAMPLE

72 canine cadaveric superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs).

PROCEDURES

Transverse tenotomy was performed, and SDFTs were repaired with a locking-loop construct (LL construct) or 3 LL constructs with IHMES suture bites placed 5 (LL + 5ES construct), 10 (LL + 10ES construct), or 15 (LL + 15ES construct) mm from the transection site (18 SDFTs/group). Constructs were loaded to failure. Load at 1− and 3-mm gapping, yield force, failure load, and failure mode were evaluated.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD yield force and failure load for LL constructs were significantly lower than for IHMES constructs. Load at 1− and 3-mm gapping was significantly higher for IHMES constructs. Increasing the bite distance significantly increased construct strength (134.4 ± 26.1 N, 151.0 ± 16.8 N, and 182.1 ± 23.6 N for LL + 5ES, LL + 10ES, and LL + 15ES constructs, respectively), compared with strength for the LL construct. Failure mode differed significantly among constructs when an IHMES was used.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Addition of an IHMES to an LL construct led to increased ultimate tensile strength by 2.5 times and significantly reduced gap formation. Increasing the IHMES bite distance increased yield force by 2.1, 2.3, and 2.7 times for bites placed 5, 10, and 15 mm from the tenotomy, respectively. Positioning an IHMES at a greater distance from the repair site provided superior biomechanical strength for tendon repairs in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research