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  • Author or Editor: Gary J. Kociba x
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SUMMARY

Twenty-four horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups. All horses underwent a ventral midline celiotomy, and the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Group-1 horses served as sham-operated controls, group-2 horses underwent 6 hours of colonic ischemia, and group-3 horses were subjected to 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion. Baseline blood samples were collected, then low-flow colonic ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. All horses were monitored for 6 hours. Citrated systemic venous ( sv ) blood samples were collected from the main pulmonary artery, and colonic venous (cv) samples were collected from the colonic vein draining the ventral colon. Samples were collected at 0, and 2, 3, 3.25, 4, and 6 hours for determination of one-stage prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin III activity, and fibrinogen concentration. Data were analyzed statistically, using two-way anova for repeated measures, and post-hoc comparisons were made by use of Student Newman Keul's test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. There were significant decreases in all hemostatic variables by 2 hours in sv and cv samples from horses of all 3 groups, but there were no differences among the 3 groups for any of these variables. These hemostatic alterations could have been secondary to a hypercoagulable state or to fluid therapy-induced hemodilution. Colonic ischemia-reperfusion was not the cause of these alterations because these alterations also were observed in the sham-operated control horses. Significant temporal alterations existed even after accounting for the hemodilution. The most plausible explanation for these alterations is that hemostatic activation was incited by the celiotomy and manipulation of the colon during exteriorization and instrumentation. Comparison of paired sv and cv samples for each hemostatic variable revealed significant differences for the absolute values of one-stage prothrombin time and fibrinogen concentration, but not for activated partial thromboplastin time or antithrombin III activity. This indicates that monitoring sv hemostatic variables does not necessarily provide an accurate assessment of hemostatic function in regional vascular beds. Largecolon ischemia with or without reperfusion did not alter hemostatic function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Lymphocyte functions in cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (lad, termed blad in cattle) were evaluated by lymphocyte markers, blastogenic response, and immunoglobulin concentrations; mononuclear phagocyte functions were assessed by chemotactic and luminol-dependent chemiluminescent (cl) responses to determine the effects of impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 on mononuclear cell functions. Deficient CD18 expression on lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with blad was clearly detected by use of flow cytometric analysis. There were no significant differences in the population of peanut agglutinin (pna)-positive and surface immunoglobulin-bearing blood lymphocytes from clinically normal cattle and cattle with blad, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Lymphocytes from cattle with blad had strong mitogen-induced blastogenic responses, which were greater than those from controls. Adherence of mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with blad was markedly impaired, and their chemotactic responses had diminished values, compared with those of controls. Luminol-dependent cl of mononuclear phagocytes from affected cattle, stimulated by opsonized zymosan, had significantly (P < 0.01) decreased values, compared with those of controls. Concentrations of IgG were markedly increased in serum from cattle with blad, compared with those in controls. These results indicated that impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 has marked effects on adhering activity of mononuclear phagocytes, and significantly inhibits cl response of mononuclear phagocytes mediated by inactivated-complement 3b-dependent functions. High selective immunoglobulin concentrations indicated that lymphocytes of B-cell lineage may have normal function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 11 cats with lymphoma involving large granular lymphocytes were reviewed. All 9 cats tested were FeLV-negative. Ten cats had a history of anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, or diarrhea, and had lymphoma involving abdominal viscera. The most common site of tumor in these cats was the jejunum. One cat had cutaneous masses caused by dermal and epidermal infiltration with neoplastic large granular lymphocytes. The most common hematologic abnormality was leukocytosis, characterized by neutrophilia with a left shift (7 cats); 2 cats had a left shift without neutrophilia. None of the cats had lymphocytosis, but immature large granular lymphocytes were found in the blood of 4 cats. The most common serum biochemical abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia (10 cats), hypocalcemia (10 cats), hypoproteinemia (9 cats), high aspartate transaminase activity (9 cats), and hyperbilirubinemia (8 cats).

Large granular lymphocytes were characterized by abundant cytoplasm containing distinct azurophilic granules that varied in size and number. The most common cytochemical staining pattern included detection of α-naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, and β-glucuronidase activities. On examination of histologic sections, granules stained weakly eosinophilic with Giemsa and moderately with periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Ultrastructurally, the granules appeared membrane bound and contained an electron-dense matrix in 4 cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Changes in clotting time (ct) and fibrinolytic actvity (fa) were evaluated in 6 mature, female horses during exercise. Two trials were performed on consecutive days, using a randomized crossover design. Each mare was assigned to either an exercise trial or a control trial on the first day, and to the alternate trial 24 hours later. Mares exercised for 20 minutes on a treadmill at an elevation of 2° and a velocity of 5 m/s. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before exercise, at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes during exercise, and 15 minutes after cessation of exercise. Blood was placed into plain glass tubes for determination of CT, and into chilled, citrated tubes for determination of FA, plasminogen/plasmin complex activity (plg), one-stage prothrombin time (ospt), activated partial thromboplastin time (aptt), and antithrombin-III (at-III) activity. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the control and exercise groups for ct, fa, and plg. During exercise, clotting time decreased from 21.5 ± 1.6 minutes to 9.9 ± 1.6 minutes (mean ± sd; P < 0.05), without significant changes in ospt, aptt, or at-III. Fibrinolytic activity and plg increased (P < 0.05) during exercise. Changes in ct, fa, and plg were significant at 4 minutes of exercise, remained altered until the end of exercise, and returned to baseline values by 45 minutes of recovery. Clotting time, ospt, aptt, fa, at-III, and plg did not change (P > 0.05) during control trials.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Feline leukemia virus status and antibody titer to feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (focma) were determined on plasma from 183 outpatient cats and 61 cats from 2 closed, FeLV-positive, multiple-cat households. Cats with focma antibody titer had a significantly (P < 0.02) higher prevalence of history of disease than did cats without focma antibody. Diseases included upper respiratory tract infections, abscesses, ear infections, lower urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal disease, pneumonia, uterine infection, lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, and bacterial infections. The focma antibody titer was determined by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody test; titer ≥ 1:16 was considered to be positive results. Lower mean focma antibody titer was observed in young cats with history of disease (P < 0.05) than in young cats without history of disease or in older cats with or without history of disease. Prevalence of focma antibody titer was identical (38%) in young and adult cats, indicating cats likely were exposed to FeLV as kittens because a higher prevalence of focma antibody titer in older cats would otherwise be expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association