Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 54 items for

  • Author or Editor: G. Smith x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of cystoscopic-guided transection for treatment of ectopic ureters in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 female dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent cystoscopic-guided transection of the membrane separating unilateral or bilateral ectopic ureters from the urethra and bladder between May 2005 and May 2008 were reviewed. Postoperative outcome was determined by use of telephone interviews conducted 1 to 36 months after the procedure.

Results—4 dogs had complete resolution of urinary incontinence with cystoscopic-guided transection alone, an additional 5 dogs had complete resolution with a combination of cystoscopic-guided transection and phenylpropanolamine administration, and an additional 4 dogs had an improvement in urinary control, although urinary incontinence persisted. Outcome could not be assessed in the remaining 3 dogs because of collagen injections in the urethra at the time of ureteral transection (n = 2) or nephrectomy secondary to unilateral hydronephrosis (1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that cystoscopic-guided transection may be an acceptable alternative to traditional surgical correction of ectopic ureter in dogs. Most complications associated with the cystoscopic procedure were minor and easily managed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with an increased likelihood that horses would have a serum Streptococcus equi SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—188 healthy client-owned horses.

Procedures—A single serum sample from each horse was tested for SeM-specific antibody titer with an ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with having a titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Results—Age, breed, and vaccination status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600. The odds of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600 increased by a factor of 1.07 with each 1-year increase in age. Quarter Horses and horses of other breeds were 4.08 times as likely as were Thoroughbreds and warmbloods to have a titer this high. Horses that had previously received an intranasal S equi vaccine were 4.7 times as likely as were horses without any history of vaccination to have a titer this high.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that older horses, horses other than Thoroughbreds and warmbloods, and horses that had been vaccinated with an attenuated-live intranasal S equi vaccine between 1 and 3 years previously had an increased likelihood of having a serum SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Biological and biochemical characteristics of the leukotoxin of Fusobacterium necrophorum were determined. Culture supernatant of F necrophorum was toxic to polymorphonuclear neutrophilic, leukocytes from cattle and sheep, but not to those from pigs and rabbits. Culture supernatant and sonicated bacterial cell fractions had low hemolytic activity and did not cause dermonecrosis in a guinea pig. Supernatant derived leukotoxin was inactivated at 56 C for 5 minutes and became unstable at pH > 7.8 or < 6.6. Chemical treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.25% sodium deoxycholate, 5.2% sodium sulfide, or 0.25 mM titanium (III) citrate markedly decreased leukotoxicity. Enzymatic treatment with protease, trypsin, and chymotrypsin inactivated the toxin completely, whereas amylase had no effect. Use of protease inhibitors failed to prevent loss of leukotoxin activity. Using membrane partition chromatography and gel filtration, the estimated molecular weight of the toxin was > 300,000. On reduction and denaturation, the toxin dissociated into several components by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the Centers for Disease Control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. Eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. Cases were reported from 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico; Hawaii remained rabies-free. Skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. For the second consecutive year, more cats (212) were reported to be infected with rabies virus than any other domestic species. Compared with their 1988 reports, 5 states reported increases of greater than 100% (Alaska, 109%; New Jersey, 233%; Ohio, 133%; Oklahoma, 168%; and Washington, 125%), and 5 states reported decreases of greater than 50% (Connecticut, 63%; Mississippi, 56%; Montana, 67%; Nevada, 55%; and West Virginia, 53%) in 1989.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Six male Beagles were inoculated with Ehrlichia canis. Transient proteinuria was confirmed during the acute phase of infection by serial determination of urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. Peak urine protein loss, consisting principally of albumin, was observed 2.5 to 3.5 weeks after inoculation. Renal biopsy specimens were obtained before inoculation, during peak proteinuria, and 10 weeks after inoculation when proteinuria had resolved. Renal tissue was evaluated by use of light, immunofluorescent, and electron microscopy to correlate specific glomerular lesions with development of proteinuria.

Histologic examination revealed perivenular and interstitial infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells localized principally to the renal cortex. Glomerular lesions were minimal to absent. Immunofluorescent staining revealed moderate to marked deposition of anti-canine IgG and IgM in the glomerular tufts and mesangium. Depositions of anti-canine complement factor C3 were not observed. Immunofluorescent staining persisted 10 weeks after inoculation, despite resolution of proteinuria, and probably represented passive trapping of immunoglobulins.

Ultrastructural examination revealed fusion of podocyte processes that coincided with development of proteinuria. Electron-dense deposits or changes in the basement membrane were not observed. Morphometric measurements of average podocyte process length and percentage of coverage of basement membrane by podocyte processes were used to quantify the degree of process fusion. Both measurements increased significantly (P < 0.05) during peak proteinuria, and returned to preinoculation values when proteinuria had resolved 10 weeks after E canis inoculation.

These findings indicated possible minimal-change glomerulopathy, rather than immune-complex glomerulonephritis, during acute E canis infection and could explain transient proteinuria without histologic evidence of glomerular disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Using an applanation tonometer, 5 replicate intraocular pressure (iop) measurements were obtained from each eye of 12 young, clinically normal, American alligators. Alligator length ranged from 46 to 117 cm, measured from snout to tail tip. All iop were recorded by a single observer at an ambient temperature of approximately 25 C, and ranged from 5 to 35 mm of Hg. Observer reliability was excellent (intraclass r = 0.93), and iop did not change over the ordered sequence of 5 replicate measurements/eye. Replicate iop measurements were, therefore, averaged in each eye for comparison between eyes of the same alligator. Left and right eye iop were highly correlated within individual alligators (r = 0.92), whereas the mean within-animal difference between left and right eye iop was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval [ci] for the left eye-right eye mean difference, −1.9 to 1.5 mm of Hg). Mean iop determined for 5 confirmed females and 3 confirmed males did not differ significantly between the sexes (95% ci for the male-female difference in means, −2.1 to 3.7 mm of Hg). Mean ± sem iop of 23.7 + 2.1 mm of Hg determined for 4 alligators < 50 cm long was significantly (P = 0.009) greater than mean iop of 11.6 + 0.5 mm of Hg determined for 8 alligators > 50 cm long (95% ci for the difference in means, 8.5 to 15.7 mm of Hg). In young alligators, the relation between body length and iop appears to be nonlinear, possibly with a negative exponent.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of increased dietary chloride and reduced sodium and potassium ion concentrations on coxofemoral joint conformation, as assessed by radiography, were examined in growing dogs. Dietary electrolyte balance was quantified by dietary anion gap (dag), defined as Na+ + K+ - Cl- in milliequivalents per 100 g of food. Diets had anion gap ranging from 8 to 41 mEq/100 g of food. One hundred sixty-seven pups from 27 litters representing 5 breeds were studied during the period of rapid growth. The extent of subluxation of the femoral head was measured on radiographs, using the method of Norberg. On average, less subluxation of the femoral head (P < 0.05) was observed when diets with lower dag were fed. Differences in dag balance did not result in different rates of weight gain; therefore, the reduction in coxofemoral joint subluxation attributable to low dag was unrelated to weight gain. Norberg angles measured at 30 weeks of age were highly correlated with coxofemoral joint status at 2 years of age, as measured by the Swedish diagnostic system and the scoring system of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (|r| ≥ 0.70, P < 0.0002, n = 24). This diet-related improvement in coxofemoral joint subluxation would be expected, on average, to delay or mitigate the characteristic clinical and radiographic signs of hip dysplasia in growing dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Forty-eight 8-week-old Labrador Retrievers were allotted to 2 groups of 24 dogs each; 1 group was fed ad libitum and the other group was given 25% less of the same feed until the dogs were 2 years old. Radiography of the hip joints was done when the dogs were 30, 42, 54, 78, and 104 weeks old. Subluxation was measured by the Norberg angle on radiographs made with the dog in the standard (extended limb) position. Independent of age at which the radiography was done, there was less subluxation of the femoral heads in the limit-fed dogs. Using the Swedish method of hip joint evaluation on the same radiographs, it was found that fewer dogs on limited food intake had signs of hip dysplasia.

Radiographs done when dogs were 2 years old, for all the methods used (Norberg angle in standard and frog-limb position, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals [ofa] score, and the Swedish score), revealed less hip dysplasia (less joint subluxation and less degenerative joint disease) in the limit-fed dogs. Using the ofa method, 7 of the 24 limit-fed dogs and 16 of the 24 ad libitum-fed dogs were diagnosed as having hip dysplasia. Similarly, using the Swedish method, 5 of the 24 limit-fed dogs and 18 of the 24 ad libitum- fed dogs were diagnosed as having hip dysplasia. The food-intake-related differences were significant both for the ofa score and for the Swedish score. There was a significant correlation between the Norberg angle measured on radiographs made with the dog in the standard position when it was 30 weeks old and the result obtained when the dog was 2 years old by the ofa and Swedish methods. The findings support the clinical recommendation to avoid overfeeding of growing dogs, particularly in breeds prone to canine hip dysplasia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association