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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anatomic landmarks to define the ideal suture placement location to achieve appropriate and consistent arytenoid cartilage abduction via unilateral cricoarytenoid lateralization (UCL) in dogs.

Sample—6 cadaveric canine larynges.

Procedures—Laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after suture placements with the epiglottis open and closed. To achieve UCL, suture was placed through the cricoid cartilage just caudal to the cricoarytenoid articulation (suture placement position [SPP] 1), one-fourth of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 2), and three-fourths of the distance caudally between the cricoarytenoid and cricothyroid articulations (SPP 3). The LAR was again calculated after tensioning of each suture separately.

Results—With a closed epiglottis, median LAR was 30.0, 20.4, 11.4, and 3.3 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPP 1, LAR with the epiglottis closed was not significantly different from that at baseline. With an open epiglottis, median LAR was 2.0, 0.4, 0.2, and 0.0 cm H2O/L/s at baseline and SPPs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After UCL at SPPs 1, 2, or 3, LAR with an open epiglottis was significantly lower than that at baseline.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that placement of suture through the cricoid cartilage at the caudal border of the cricoarytenoid articulation was appropriate to sufficiently reduce LAR without increasing the risk of aspiration pneumonia through overabduction of the arytenoid cartilage.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures for a novel suture material with pressures for comparable suture material when used in closure of intestinal anastomoses in canine cadavers.

Sample—Healthy intestines from cadavers of dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study.

Procedures—18 anastomoses were performed on intestinal sections within 72 hours after dogs were euthanized and intestinal samples collected. Anastomoses were performed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured and recorded for 6 control segments and 18 anastomosed sections. A barbed glycomer 631 suture (size 4–0 United States Pharmacopeia [USP]) was compared with glycomer 631 sutures (sizes 3–0 and 4–0 USP). Results for leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were compared via an ANOVA.

Results—The barbed glycomer 631 suture material leaked at a significantly higher pressure than did the comparable glycomer 631 suture materials. Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different among the suture materials.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Barbed glycomer 631 4–0 USP suture material was as effective as glycomer 631 suture materials and may be a safe alternative for use in closure of enterectomies in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare outcomes of dogs with pyothorax treated medically versus surgically and to identify prognostic indicators for dogs with pyothorax.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—26 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, results of physical and laboratory evaluations at the time of initial examination, results of bacterial culture of pleural fluid, radiographic abnormalities, treatment (surgical vs medical), complications, whether the disease recurred, disease-free interval, survival time, and cause of death.

Results—Calculated proportions of dogs free from disease 1 year after treatment were 25 and 78%, respectively, for dogs treated medically and surgically. Treatment was 5.4 times as likely to fail in dogs treated medically as in dogs treated surgically. Two regression models relating treatment group (medical vs surgical) to disease-free interval were found to be significant. The first contained terms for medical treatment and isolation of Actinomyces spp from pleural fluid; the second contained terms for medical treatment and radiographic detection of mediastinal or pulmonary lesions at the time of initial examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that surgical treatment is associated with a better outcome than medical treatment in dogs with pyothorax. In addition, surgery should be considered if radiographic evidence of mediastinal or pulmonary lesions is detected or if Actinomyces spp is isolated from the pleural fluid. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:86–92)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine long-term outcome of dogs treated surgically for idiopathic chylothorax.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 client-owned dogs with idiopathic chylothorax that underwent surgery between November 1995 and April 2009 and had been followed up for at least 4 months after surgery.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic findings, surgical procedures, postoperative complications, outcome, and cause of death.

Results—A median sternotomy was performed in 10 dogs, and a right intercostal thoracotomy (fifth and ninth intercostal spaces) was performed in 1. Thoracic duct ligation and subtotal pericardectomy were performed in all dogs. Thoracic omentalization was performed in 8 dogs at the time of surgery, passive pleuroperitoneal shunting was performed in 2 dogs, and pleurodesis was performed in 1 dog. Lung lobectomy was performed because of lung consolidation in 2 dogs and lung lobe torsion in another 2 dogs at the time of the initial surgery. Median disease-free interval did not differ significantly between dogs that did and did not undergo lung lobectomy. Postoperative complications occurred in 5 dogs. Median follow-up time was 46 months. Eight of 11 dogs were free from clinical signs 5 years after surgery. Two of the 3 dogs that did not undergo thoracic omentalization had a recurrence of clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the prognosis for dogs surgically treated for idiopathic chylothorax was fair and that lung lobectomy was not a negative prognostic indicator.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare outcomes of various surgical techniques for treatment of laryngeal paralysis in dogs and determine incidence and risk factors for development of postoperative complications.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—140 dogs undergoing surgical treatment for laryngeal paralysis at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1985 and 1998.

Procedure—Data were analyzed to determine outcome and factors influencing outcome and development of complications. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for survival analysis.

Results—Postoperative complications were documented in 48 (34.3%) dogs; 20 (14.3%) dogs died of related causes. Aspiration pneumonia was the most common complication (33; 23.6%). Seven dogs died of aspiration pneumonia > 1 year after surgery. Dogs that underwent bilateral arytenoid lateralization were significantly more likely to develop complications and significantly less likely to survive than were dogs that underwent unilateral arytenoid lateralization or partial laryngectomy. Factors that were significantly associated with a higher risk of dying or of developing complications included age, temporary tracheostomy placement, concurrent respiratory tract abnormalities, concurrent esophageal disease, postoperative megaesophagus, concurrent neoplastic disease, and concurrent neurologic disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that surgical repair of laryngeal paralysis may be associated with high postoperative complication and mortality rates. Surgical technique and concurrent problems or diseases increased the risk of complications. Dogs appeared to have a life-long risk of developing respiratory tract complications following surgical correction. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1949–1956)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in pH of peritoneal fluid associated with CO2 insufflation during laparoscopy in dogs.

Animals—13 client-owned dogs and 10 purpose-bred teaching dogs.

Procedures—Laparotomy was performed on control dogs; peritoneal fluid pH was mea-sured at time of incision of the abdominal cavity (time 0) and 30 minutes later. Laparoscopic insufflation with CO2 was performed and routine laparoscopic procedures conducted on the teaching dogs. Insufflation pressure was limited to 12 mm Hg. Intraperitoneal fluid pH was measured by use of pH indicator paper at 4 time points. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the same time points.

Results—Peritoneal fluid pH did not change significantly between 0 and 30 minutes in the control dogs. For dogs with CO2 insufflation, measurements obtained were a mean of 8.5, 24.5, 44.5, and 72.0 minutes after insufflation. The pH of peritoneal fluid decreased signifi-cantly between the first (7.825 ± 0.350) and second (7.672 ± 0.366) time point. Blood pH decreased significantly between the first (7.343 ± 0.078), third (7.235 ± 0.042), and fourth (7.225 ± 0.038) time points. The PaCO2 increased significantly between the first (39.9 ± 9.8 mm Hg) and fourth (54.6 ± 4.4 mm Hg) time points. Base excess decreased significantly between the first and all subsequent time points.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pneumoperitoneum attributable to CO2 insufflation caused a mild and transient decrease in peritoneal fluid pH in dogs. Changes in peritoneal fluid associated with CO2 insufflation in dogs were similar to those in other animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of bilateral ventriculocordectomy via ventral laryngotomy on laryngeal airway resistance (LAR) in canine cadaver larynges.

SAMPLE 6 clinically normal canine cadaver larynges.

PROCEDURES LAR was determined for each specimen before (baseline) and after bilateral ventriculocordectomy with the epiglottis open and closed. After ventral laryngotomy was performed, the vocal cords were sharply excised, and the incised mucosal edges were apposed with 4-0 glycomer 631 suture in a simple continuous pattern. The thyroid cartilage was apposed with 3-0 polypropylene suture in a simple continuous pattern.

RESULTS With the epiglottis closed, baseline median LAR was 27.6 cm H2O/L/s (range, 21.2 to 30.6 cm H2O/L/s), which did not differ significantly from the median LAR after bilateral ventriculocordectomy (24.7 cm H2O/L/s [range, 20.6 to 27.7 cm H2O/L/s]). With the epiglottis open, baseline median LAR was 7.3 cm H2O/L/s (range, 5.4 to 7.8 cm H2O/L/s), which did not differ significantly from the median LAR after bilateral ventriculocordectomy (7.2 cm H2O/L/s [range, 6.6 to 7.6 cm H2O/L/s]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Bilateral ventriculocordectomy did not affect LAR with an open epiglottis in canine cadaver larynges. Therefore, it may not be an effective treatment for laryngeal paralysis. It also did not affect LAR with a closed epiglottis, which may indicate protection against aspiration pneumonia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors associated with long-term survival in dogs treated surgically for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—52 dogs treated surgically for left-to-right shunting PDA.

Procedure—Data pertaining to age, breed, sex, body weight, clinical examination findings, type and duration of medical treatment, results of thoracic radiography and echocardiography, and surgical and postoperative complications were collected from records. Follow-up information was obtained from medical records or telephone interviews with owners or referring veterinarians.

Results—22 dogs had mitral valve regurgitation. Mean weight and age were not significantly different between dogs with or without mitral valve regurgitation. Twenty-four (46.2%) dogs had clinical signs related to cardiac insufficiency. Left atrial dilatation was observed in 56.3% of dogs that were radiographed. Sonographic imaging was used to diagnose left atrial dilatation in 23 dogs and left ventricular dilatation in 25 dogs. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 92% and 87%, respectively. Diagnosis of mitral valve regurgitation before surgery was not associated with the probability of survival. Age, weight, lethargy, preoperative treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and right atrial dilatation on radiographs at the time of surgery were negatively associated with probability of survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical treatment of PDA was curative in young dogs without clinical signs of heart failure. Surgical correction of PDA should be recommended as early as possible after diagnosis, and mitral valve regurgitation is not a contraindication for surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1794–1799)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine changes in splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio during experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.

Animals—6 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed in anesthetized dogs. Baseline measurements of arterial blood pressure, aortic blood flow, portal vein blood flow, and portal vein pressure were acquired, and arterial, venous, and portal vein blood samples were obtained to determine systemic and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratios. The portal vein was gradually occluded until a pressure of 18 cm of H2O was reached; this pressure was maintained for 30 minutes, and measurements and collection of blood samples were repeated.

Results—Portal vein blood flow decreased significantly from 457 ± 136 ml/min before to 266 ± 83 ml/min after induction of portal hypertension. Oxygen content in the portal vein significantly decreased from 12.3 ± 1.85 to 8.2 ± 2.31%, and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio significantly increased from 15.8 ± 6.2 to 37.4 ± 10.9% during portal hypertension. There was a significant inverse correlation between portal vein blood flow and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio at baseline and during portal hypertension.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An increase in splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio is evident with partial attenuation of the portal vein and the concurrent decrease in portal vein blood flow. Correlation of oxygen extraction ratio with portal vein blood flow may be a more important indicator for determination of an endpoint to prevent congestion and ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas during ligation of portosystemic shunts. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:15–18)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the predominant perforating artery in the canine latissimus dorsi muscle and demonstrate that perfusion of the predominant perforating artery improves blood flow in segments of the latissimus dorsi muscle that are located distally from the thoracodorsal artery.

Sample Population—Latissimus dorsi muscles dissected from 7 dogs.

Procedures—Colored microspheres were used to determine the degree of perfusion of the latissimus dorsi muscle via the thoracodorsal artery, predominant perforating artery, or the thoracodorsal artery and predominant perforating artery together. The latissimus dorsi muscle was divided into 4 proximal to distal segments relative to the thoracodorsal artery (segments A, B, C, and D, respectively).

Results—The perforating artery, located at the level of the fifth intercostal space, predominantly supplied perfusion to segments B, C, and D. The number of microspheres received by segment C was significantly higher when the thoracodorsal artery and perforating artery were used for muscle perfusion (181.40 ± 44.90 microspheres/300 g of tissue for every 3,000 spheres injected), compared with use of the thoracodorsal artery alone (60.00 ± 13.70 microspheres/300 g of tissue for every 3,000 spheres injected).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood flow via the predominant perforating artery improves perfusion to the middle part of the latissimus dorsi muscle in dogs. A bipedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap would provide a healthier muscle for cardiac assist in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1255–1259)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research