Objective—To characterize the clinical and morphologic
aspects of aqueous humor misdirection syndrome
(AHMS) in cats and provide a hypothesis
regarding its pathogenesis on the basis of detailed
analysis of affected cats.
Animals—32 cats (40 eyes).
Procedure—Medical records of cats in which AHMS
was diagnosed from July 1997 to August 2003 were
reviewed. In certain cats, results of additional diagnostic
testing were also obtained, including A-scan,
B-scan, and high-resolution ultrasonography; streak
retinoscopy; video keratometry; and infrared neutralizing
videoretinoscopy as well as results of analysis of
flash-frozen sections and histologic examination of
Results—Cats had a uniformly shallow anterior
chamber, intact lens zonules, and a narrowed
approach to an open iridocorneal angle. Mean age of
affected cats was 11.7 years (range, 4 to 16 years),
and female cats were significantly more often affected
than male cats. Clinical signs included mydriasis,
decreased pupillary light reflex, decreased menace
response, and blindness. Glaucomatous changes to
the optic nerve, incipient cataracts, and eventual
blindness were seen. Intraocular pressure was ≥ 20
mm Hg (range, 12 to 58 mm Hg) in 32 of 40 eyes.
Ultrasonography and histologic examination revealed
a thickened anterior vitreal face interposed between
the lens and ciliary body, partial ciliary cleft collapse,
and cavitated vitreal regions. Various treatment
modalities were used.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—AHMS affects
older cats, especially females, and may result in glaucoma,
vision loss, and signs of ocular pain. Topical
administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
decreased intraocular pressure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To compare ultrasonographic and histologic examination findings for eyes of animals with ocular diseases.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—116 eyes of 113 animals examined at 2 facilities.
Procedures—Diseased eyes of animals were examined by means of ultrasonography, removed via enucleation or exenteration, then histologically examined. Ultrasonographic images and histopathologic slides were evaluated, and diseases of eyes were identified with each of those methods and allocated to various categories. For each disease category, agreement between results of ultrasonography and those of histologic examination was assessed via determination of κ statistic values.
Results—Tests had good agreement for identification of iris or ciliary body neoplasia. Overall, intraocular neoplasia was not detected via ultrasonography for only 2 of 31 eyes with histologically detected neoplasia. Hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes were misinterpreted as neoplasia for 8 of 37 (22%) eyes. Tests had moderate to acceptable agreement for identification of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment was not detected by means of ultrasonography for 14 of 38 (37%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via histologic examination at one of the facilities (primarily in eyes with intraocular hemorrhage); however, retinal detachment was not identified via histologic examination for 6 of 38 (16%) eyes with that diagnosis determined via ultrasonography at the other facility.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of intraocular neoplasia. Typically, diseases were misdiagnosed via ultrasonography for eyes with poor image contrast. Because determination of ultrasonographic diagnoses of retinal detachment and intraocular neoplasm may be of prognostic importance, performance of additional ultrasonographic techniques may be indicated.
Objective—To investigate long-term outcomes and owner-perceived quality of life associated with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in dogs.
Animals—100 dogs with SARDS examined at 5 academic veterinary institutions from 2005 to 2010.
Procedures—The diagnosis was based on documented acute vision loss, normal results of ophthalmic examinations, and evaluation of extinguished bright-flash electroretinograms. Primary owners of affected dogs completed a questionnaire addressing outcome measures including vision, systemic signs, and perceived quality of life for their dogs.
Results—Age at diagnosis was significantly correlated with positive outcome measures; dogs in which SARDS was diagnosed at a younger age were more likely to have alleged partial vision and higher owner-perceived quality of life. Polyphagia was the only associated systemic sign found to increase in severity over time. Medical treatment was attempted in 22% of dogs; visual improvement was not detected in any. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported an improved relationship with their dog after diagnosis, and 95% indicated they would discourage euthanasia of dogs with SARDS.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blindness and concurrent systemic signs associated with SARDS appeared to persist indefinitely, but only polyphagia increased in severity over time. Most owners believed their pets had good quality of life and would discourage euthanasia of dogs with SARDS.