Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 12 of 12 items for

  • Author or Editor: Dr Roman T. Skarda x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

SUMMARY

Eight adult female cattle (6 Holstein, 1 Jersey, 1 Brown Swiss) were used to determine the antagonistic effects of tolazoline, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on xylazine-induced (via caudal epidural administration) depression of cns, respiratory, and cardiovascular activity and rumen motility. A 2% solution of xylazine HCl was injected into the epidural space at the first coccygeal interspace, using a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg of body weight, diluted to a 5-ml volume with sterile water, and administered at a rate of approximately 1 ml/30 s. Eight minutes after xylazine injection, either tolazoline (0.3 mg/kg) or saline solution (4 ml) was administered iv. All 8 cattle were treated, using both regimens in a random sequence; at least 1 week elapsed between treatments. Epidurally administered xylazine induced caudal analgesia (S3 to coccyx), as evaluated by no response to superficial and deep muscular pinprick, and induced sedation, cardiopulmonary depression, and inhibition of rumen motility, but all cattle remained standing. Tolazoline effectively reversed xylazine-induced rumen hypomotility, and partially antagonized xylazine-induced cardiopulmonary depression without affecting sedation and desirable local (S3 to coccyx) analgesic effects.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight diluted to a 5-ml volume, using 0.9% NaCl) or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered epidurally into the first caudal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2) in 8 cows (mean ± sd body weight, 583 ± 150 kg). Cows were observed for responses to deep needle pricking of the caudal dermatomes (S3 to Co), sedation, and ataxia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, rate of ruminal contractions, coccygeal arterial blood pressure, pHa, blood gas tension (Pa o 2 , Pa co 2 ), base excess, total solids concentration, and pcv were determined before and after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered xylazine induced sedation and selective (S3 to Co) analgesia for at least 2 hours. Mild ataxia of hind limbs was observed in 6 cows, but all cows remained standing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rate of ruminal contractions, arterial blood pressure, Pa o 2 , pcv, and total solids concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, and Pa co 2 , base excess, and bicarbonate concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered 0.9% NaCl did not alter sensory perception to needle pricking and did not affect any of the physiologic variables determined. Although epidural administration of xylazine induced analgesia and sedation in healthy cows, it should be avoided for epidural analgesia in cattle with heart disease, lung disease, and/or gastrointestinal disease because of its potent cardiopulmonary and ruminal depressant effects.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research