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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effects of single iv injections of sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg of body weight, 1 mEq/kg, 2 mEq/kg, and 4 mEq/kg) on serum osmolality, serum sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations, and venous blood gas tensions in 6 healthy cats were monitored for 180 minutes.

Serum osmolality increased and remained significantly (P < 0.05) increased for 120 minutes in cats given 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg. Serum sodium was increased significantly (P < 0.05) for 30 minutes in cats given 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg. Serum sodium decreased and remained significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for 120 minutes in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg, and serum osmolality was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at 30 and 60 minutes. Serum chloride decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for 10 minutes in cats given 1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg, and was significantly decreased for 30 minutes in cats given 2 mEq and 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg. Serum chloride decreased and remained significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for 30 minutes in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg. Serum sodium and serum osmolality did not change significantly (P < 0.05) in cats given 4 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg.

Serum potassium decreased significantly (P < 0.05) for 10 minutes in cats given 1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg, and for 120 minutes in cats given 2 mEq/kg or 4 mEq/kg. There was a significantly (P < 0.05) greater decrease in serum potassium that lasted for 30 minutes after giving sodium bicarbonate at the dosage of 4 mEq/kg, compared with other dosages given. Serum potassium did not change significantly in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg, but was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased 10 minutes following 4 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg.

Sodium bicarbonate infusion significantly (P < 0.05) increased venous blood pH and plasma bicarbonate concentration in all cats. The magnitude and duration of these changes were significantly greater following administration of sodium bicarbonate at dosages of 2 mEq/kg and 4 mEq/kg. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in Pco2 were associated only with the highest dosage of sodium bicarbonate (4 mEq/kg). Base excess increased significantly (P < 0.05) in all cats following sodium bicarbonate infusion. There were significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in base excess lasting 30 minutes following administration of sodium bicarbonate at dosages of 2 mEq/kg and 4 mEq/kg. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in venous blood pH, Pco2 , or bicarbonate were not observed in cats given 4 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride/kg, or in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg. Base excess was significantly (P < 0.05) increased for 10 minutes in cats given 1 g of 20% mannitol/kg.

As expected, 4 mEq of sodium bicarbonate/kg induced the most time- and dosage-related effects. Caution should be used when administering sodium bicarbonate iv to cats at dosages > 2 mEq/kg, because of the potential for important acid-base and electrolyte changes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To assess clinical signs and response to surgical treatment in Dalmatians with urate urolithiasis.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

38 Dalmatians.

Procedure—

Medical records from 1980 to 1995 of Dalmatians with urate urolithiasis were reviewed to obtain information on history, results of physical examination, hemogram, biochemical analysis, urinalysis, bacterial culture of urine, diagnostic imaging, analysis of calculi, treatment, and recurrence.

Results—

35 (92%) dogs were males. Mean age at admission was 4.9 years. Common clinical findings and initial complaints included dribbling of urine, stranguria, vomiting, tense abdomen with signs of pain, and a large bladder. Hematuria was found in 85% of dogs in which urinalysis was performed. Crystalluria was found in 54% of dogs. Bacteria were isolated from urine from 36% of dogs. Contrast radiography and abdominal ultrasonography were the most sensitive diagnostic tests for uroliths. Dogs that underwent scrotal urethrostomy and cystotomy had the fewest number of recurrent clinical signs that were attributable to urinary calculi. Clinical recurrence rate in dogs on a protein-restricted diet was 27%, compared with that (36%) for dogs on a commercial diet.

Clinical Implications—

Urate urolithiasis is more commonly recognized in male Dalmatians compared with females. Contrast radiography and ultrasonography appear to be the most useful techniques for detecting urate uroliths. Scrotal urethrostomy and cystotomy was the most effective surgical treatment for preventing recurrence of clinical signs associated with calculi. Complete removal of calculi and protein-restricted diets may have a beneficial effect in reducing recurrence of calculi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:833-838)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To compare urine pH of cats and dogs determined by use of a dipstrip and a pH meter.

Design—

Prospective study.

Sample Population—

109 urine samples from 88 cats that were clinically normal or had signs of irritative urination, 52 samples from 13 clinically normal dogs, and 3 samples from 3 dogs with urinary tract infections.

Procedure—

Measurements of urine pH were obtained by use of a dipstrip and pH meter, and degree of agreement between measurements was evaluated.

Results—

Mean difference (± 2 SD) between the 2 methods was 0.1 ± 0.9 pH units. Only 65 of 164 (40%) samples measured by use of a dipstrip were within 0.25 pH units of results obtained by use of the pH meter.

Clinical Implications—

When an accurate measurement of urine pH is critical for clinical decision making, the measurement should be made by use of a pH meter. Dipstrips typically are not accurate enough to be clinically useful. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:996-998)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine results of double-contrast cystography in cats with idiopathic cystitis.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

45 cats with clinical signs of nonobstructive lower urinary tract disease for which an underlying cause could not be determined.

Procedure

Medical records and double-contrast cystograms performed initially and during 6- and 12- month reevaluations were reviewed.

Results

105 cystograms were reviewed. Fifteen (33%) cats had abnormalities evident on cystograms obtained at the time of initial examination. Of these, only 1 had abnormalities 6 and 12 months later. Thirty cats did not have abnormalities evident on cystograms obtained at the time of initial examination. Of these, 1 had abnormalities on a cystogram performed 6 months later and another had abnormalities on a cystogram performed 12 months later. Abnormalities evident on cystograms included focal thickening of the bladder wall (n = 11), diffuse thickening of the bladder wall (6), irregularities of the bladder mucosa (10), decreased opacity of the bladder wall (3), increased opacity of the bladder mucosa (3), filling defects (4), contrast medium in unexpected locations (3), and altered ureteral opacity (15).

Clinical Implications

Results suggested that a large percentage of cats with idiopathic cystitis do not have cystographic abnormalities when initially examined but that abnormalities may be apparent during follow-up evaluations. In addition, a smaller percentage of cats with idiopathic cystitis may have nonspecific cystographic signs of cystitis or hemorrhage. Leakage of contrast medium into the peritoneal space during cystography does not necessarily require surgical management. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 1907–1909)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate clinical and pathologic findings in Golden Retrievers with renal dysplasia.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

12 young Golden Retrievers with chronic renal disease.

Procedure

Medical records of affected dogs were evaluated on the basis of clinical findings, laboratory test results, and histologic findings.

Results

Common clinical findings were vomiting, anorexia, weight loss, polydipsia, and polyuria. Common laboratory findings were azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercholesterolemia, isosthenuria, proteinuria, hypercalcemia, and nonregenerative anemia. Many affected dogs also had urinary tract infections, and some were hypertensive. Renal lesions consisted of moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic interstitial inflammation. Cystic glomerular atrophy and periglomerular fibrosis were prominent features in most affected dogs. Fetal lobulation of glomeruli, adenomatoid hyperplasia of collecting tubule epithelium, and primitive mesenchymal connective tissue were histologic features suggestive of renal dysplasia.

Clinical Implications

Renal dysplasia should be suspected in Golden Retrievers < 3 years old with clinical findings and laboratory results indicative of renal disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:792–797)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Amino acid profiles and serum albumin and serum total protein concentrations were evaluated in dogs with renal disease. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf; exogenous creatinine clearance, 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal control dogs, were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks, at which time serum and urine imino acid assays and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a diet containing 16% protein for 3 weeks and then reevaluated.

Chronic renal failure was associated with mild abnormalities in serum concentrations of amino acids. When fed the higher protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum concentrations of glutamine, leucine, proline, and serine and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine than clinically normal control dogs. When fed the low protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum serine concentrations and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine, phenylalanine, and 3-methylhistidine. Urine excretion of amino acids in all dogs on both diets was low, and dogs with crf had lower renal clearances of 3-methylhistidine than control dogs. There were no significant differences in concentrations of serum albumin and total solids between either group, regardless of diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have mild abnormalities of serum free amino acid concentrations, but renal conservation of essential amino acids is not impaired.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research