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  • Author or Editor: Dennis B. DeNicola x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of piroxicam for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—17 dogs with measurable oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Procedure—Dogs were treated with piroxicam at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg (0.14 mg/lb) of body weight, PO, every 24 hours until progressive disease or unacceptable signs of toxicosis developed or the dog died.

Results—One dog had a complete remission (maxillary tumor), and 2 dogs had partial remissions (lingual tumor and tonsillar tumor). An additional 5 dogs had stable disease, including 1 with a maxillary tumor, 2 with mandibular tumors, and 2 with tonsillar tumors. Variables associated with tumor response were not identified. Median and mean times to failure for the 3 dogs that had a remission were 180 and 223 days, respectively. Median and mean times to failure for the 5 dogs with stable disease were 102 and 223 days, respectively. Time to failure was positively associated with tumor response and negatively associated with tumor size. One dog had mild adverse gastrointestinal tract effects that resolved with the addition of misoprostol to the treatment regimen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that piroxicam may be useful in the treatment of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma; response rate was similar to that reported for other cytotoxic treatments. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine what role piroxicam may have, alone or in combination with other treatments, for the treatment of dogs with oral squamous cell carcinoma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1783–1786)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether cisplatin administered at a dosage of 60 mg/m2 of body surface area, IV, every 21 days, would induce remission of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Animals

18 dogs with histologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

Procedure

Clinical staging was performed by means of physical examination, contrast cystography or ultrasonography, and thoracic radiography prior to and 42 days after the initiation of cisplatin treatment. Dogs with clinical signs of tumor progression were reevaluated earlier than 42 days in some instances. Complete remission (CR) was defined as complete resolution of measurable tumor. Partial remission (PR) was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in tumor volume without development of new tumors. Stable disease was defined as < 50% change in tumor volume at 42 days without development of new lesions. Progressive disease (PD) was defined as ≥ 50% increase in tumor volume or development of new tumors at any time. Dogs were reevaluated at 42-day intervals until they had a CR, developed PD, or developed unacceptable adverse effects.

Results

Three dogs had a PR, 4 had stable disease, and 9 had PD. Tumor response could not be assessed in 2 dogs: 1 dog developed grand mal seizures 3 hours after the first dose of cisplatin was given and was euthanatized; the other dog continued to have clinical signs of urinary tract obstruction and was euthanatized 8 days after the first dose of cisplatin. Four dogs developed renal azotemia that was suspected to be secondary to cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

Clinical Implications

The cisplatin dosage was higher than that reported in studies of dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Even with this higher dosage, none of the dogs had a CR, and only 3 of 18 had a PR. A more effective, less toxic treatment for transitional cell carcinoma in dogs is needed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1588–1591)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 2 groups of clinically normal dogs were compared after iopamidol (n = 9) and metrizamide (n = 8) myelography. Iopamidol (200 mg of I/ml) and metrizamide (170 mg of I/ml) were administered by cerebellomedullary injection at dosage of 0.45 ml/kg of body weight. In dogs of both groups, postmyelographic csf changes included high specific gravity, Pandy score, protein concentration, and wbc count. The high specific gravity and Pandy score were false-positive effects attributed to nonionic contrast media. Although postmyelographic protein concentration and total wbc count were greater in csf samples from dogs given metrizamide than in those given iopamidol, differences were not statistically significant. The differential wbc counts were consistent with mild, acute leptomeningitis; these findings were supported by results of histologic examination. Iopamidol and metrizamide should be considered low-grade leptomeningeal irritants in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the antitumor and toxic effects of treatment with doxorubicin combined with piroxicam or doxorubicin alone for multicentric lymphoma in dogs.

Design—Nonrandomized clinical trial.

Animals—75 dogs with multicentric lymphoma.

Procedure—33 dogs were treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h); results were compared with a historical control group of 42 dogs treated with doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d, for 3 doses) alone.

Results—The percentages of dogs that had remission with doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment (79%) or doxorubicin treatment alone (74%) were not significantly different. Median duration of first remission was 130 days with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 147 days with doxorubicin alone; these values were not significantly different. Severe toxicosis was observed in 22% of dogs treated with doxorubicin-piroxicam and 17% of dogs treated with doxorubicin alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both treatment protocols were efficacious and well tolerated. The doxorubicin-piroxicam treatment was no more effective regarding response rate, remission duration, or survival duration, compared with the control group treated with doxorubicin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1813–1817)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube in 34 specific-pathogen-free cats to determine expected values for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytologic analysis, using this method of collection. Saline solution for lavage was instilled in 3 separate aliquots at a volume of 5 ml/kg of body weight each. Analysis of sequential aliquots was performed to investigate the differences in cell counts among the 3 fractions. The effect of combining aliquots, including or omitting the first fraction, was evaluated to determine whether all aliquots could be combined for analysis without substantially affecting results.

The total number of nucleated cells retrieved from each cat ranged from 0.9 to 31.1 × 106. Most of these cells were macrophages (78 ± 15%, mean ± sd) and eosinophils (16 ± 14%). The first aliquot had the greatest number of epithelial cells, and the lowest total nucleated cell count and relative and absolute eosinophil counts. Differences among aliquots also were identified for relative and absolute macrophage counts, relative and absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte count. Statistically significant differences were found for many of the cell counts when values from the combination of the second and third aliquots were compared with values from the combination of all 3 aliquots. Magnitude of the differences was small, and these differences were not believed to be of practical consequence.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research