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To increase acidic esophageal lumen pH in dogs that developed gastroesophageal reflux (GER) during anesthesia. We compared water and 2 different bicarbonate concentrations.


112 healthy, nonbrachycephalic dogs presented for ovariectomy.


Following standard anesthesia and surgery protocols for ovariectomy in all dogs, esophageal lumen impedance and pH were monitored using a dedicated probe. Esophageal impedance indicates the presence of GER whereas pH indicates the acidity level. Dogs with strongly acidic GER and an esophageal lumen pH value < 4.0 were included in the study, and lavage was performed with either tap water, bicarbonate 1%, or bicarbonate 2% until the pH increased to > 4.0. The effect of lavage on esophageal pH was compared using the Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon 2 sample tests. Associations between lavage and pH changes were determined.


Of 48/112 dogs with strongly acidic GER, 33% neutralized their esophageal pH during surgery. For the 32 dogs that maintained an esophageal lumen pH value < 4, esophageal lavage with water increased the lumen pH to > 4 in 78.6% of dogs, whereas both bicarbonate concentrations increased it in 100% of the dogs to a more neutral pH (P < .0001). The dogs in the water group were more likely to regurgitate after anesthesia (36% vs 0% in both bicarbonate groups, P = .028).


Bicarbonate 1% and 2% increased esophageal lumen pH to more than 4 after strongly acidic GER. Lavage with water was mildly effective, but required large volumes and predisposed to further regurgitation after anesthesia.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine factors associated with long-term survival after biliary surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—34 dogs that underwent biliary surgery.

Procedures—Data extracted from medical records included sex, breed, body weight, age at surgery, history and clinical examination findings, preoperative and postoperative CBC, serum biochemical panel and coagulation profiles results, abdominal ultrasonographic findings, results of bacteriologic culture and histologic examination, surgical findings, postoperative complications, and survival time. Follow-up information was obtained from medical records or phone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Primary biliary findings included gallbladder mucocele (n = 20 dogs), inflammatory diseases (4), trauma (3), and neoplasia (1). Secondary biliary diseases included pancreatitis (n = 4), pancreatic neoplasia (1), and duodenal perforation (1). One- and 2-year survival rates were both 66%. Increasing age; γ-glutamyltransferase activity; preanesthetic heart rate; BUN, phosphorus, and bilirubin concentrations; and the use of biliary diversion procedures were risk factors for death, although pancreatitis was not. However, poor long-term survival was associated with pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-term prognosis was guarded after biliary surgery in dogs. However, dogs that survived the early postoperative period had good long-term prognosis. Dogs with pancreatitis had poor prognosis. Overall, the prognosis was worse for dogs that underwent a biliary diversion, compared with dogs that did not.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association