Objective—To evaluate the effects of recombinant human interferon α-2b (rHuIFN-α2b) and recombinant feline interferon ω (rFeIFN-ω) on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus (FHV)-1.
Sample Population—Cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells.
Procedures—CRFK cells were treated with rFeIFN-ω or rHuIFN-α2b at concentrations ranging from 100 to 500,000 U/mL. Cultures were then inoculated with FHV-1. Constant concentrations of interferon products were maintained throughout the study. Reductions in the number and size of plaques were used as indicators of antiviral activity. Six plaque reduction assays were performed in duplicate. A 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect cytotoxic effects of interferon. A 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett test were used to determine significant differences.
Results—Treatment with rFeIFN-ω at various concentrations resulted in significant reductions in the number of plaques (100,000 U/mL, 54.7%; and 500,000 U/mL, 59.8%) and in plaque size (100,000 U/mL, 47.5%; 250,000 U/mL, 81.0%; and 500,000 U/mL; 70.5%). Treatment with various concentrations of rHuIFN-α2b resulted in a significant reduction in plaque size (100,000 U/mL, 56.0%; 250,000 U/mL, 75.7%; and 500,000 U/mL, 69.0%). None of the tested concentrations of interferon caused significant cellular toxicosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At some of the higher concentrations, the antiviral effect of rFeIFN-ω was greater than the antiviral effect of rHuIFN-α2b. Reduction in plaque size appeared to be a good indicator of the antiviral activity of interferon against FHV-1.
Objective—To characterize and evaluate risk factors for suture-associated cystoliths in dogs and cats.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—163 dogs and 13 cats with suture-associated cystoliths and 326 control dogs and 26 control cats with non–suture-associated cystoliths.
Procedures—Submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre received from 1999 to 2006 were reviewed. Case dogs and cats had cystoliths associated with visible suture or with hollow, cylindrical channels or suture knot impressions consistent with dissolved suture. Control dogs and cats had at least a single recurrent non–suture-associated cystolith submitted closest in time to the sample case. Associations among cystolith composition, recurrence times, sex, age, and breed were evaluated.
Results—Cases consisted of 92 dogs and 7 cats with visible suture and 71 dogs and 6 cats with dissolved suture. Suture-associated cystoliths represented 0.6% of canine cystoliths, 9.4% of recurrent canine cystoliths, 0.17% of feline cystoliths, and 4% of recurrent feline cystoliths. Sexually intact and neutered males were at increased odds of suture-associated cystoliths, relative to spayed female dogs. Shih Tzus, Lhasa Apsos, and Pomeranians were significantly predisposed to form suture-associated cystoliths. In dogs, compound suture-associated cystoliths were significantly more likely than other cystolith types (OR, 8.6). Dogs with suture-associated cystoliths had significantly shorter recurrence times than did control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Suture remnants in the bladder have an important role in recurrent cystolithiasis in dogs. Identification of risk factors is important for avoiding recurrence of iatrogenic cystoliths.
Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention
efforts to halt 2 wildlife rabies epizootics from
1995 through 2003, including 9 oral rabies vaccination
campaigns for coyotes and 8 oral rabies vaccination
campaigns for gray foxes.
Animals—98 coyotes during prevaccination surveillance
and 963 coyotes and 104 nontarget animals during
postvaccination surveillance in south Texas, and
699 gray foxes and 561 nontarget animals during
postvaccination surveillance in west-central Texas.
Procedures—A recombinant-virus oral rabies vaccine
in edible baits was distributed by aircraft for consumption
by coyotes and gray foxes. Bait acceptance
was monitored by use of microscopic analysis of
tetracycline biomarker in upper canine teeth and
associated bone structures in animals collected for
surveillance. Serologic responses were monitored by
testing sera for rabies virus–neutralizing antibodies by
use of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. The
incidence of rabies in the distribution area was recorded
via active and passive surveillance activities; tracking
of rabies virus variants in confirmed rabid animals
was used to determine the number and type of rabies
cases before and after distributions of the vaccine.
Results—The expansion of both epizootics was halted
as a result of the vaccine bait program. The number
of laboratory-confirmed rabid animals attributable
to the domestic dog-coyote rabies virus variant in
south Texas declined to 0, whereas the number of laboratory-
confirmed rabid animals attributable to the
Texas fox rabies virus variant in west-central Texas
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data indicated
that oral rabies vaccination resulted in protective immunity
in a sufficient percentage of the target wildlife population
to preclude propagation of the disease and provided
an effective means of controlling rabies in these
species. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:785–792)