Objective—To evaluate effects of intracameral injection
of preservative-free 1% and 2% lidocaine
hydrochloride solution on the anterior segment of the
eyes in dogs.
Animals—16 adult healthy dogs (8 male and 8
female) judged to be free of ocular disease.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2
groups of 8 dogs each. Group 1 dogs received an
intracameral injection of 0.10 mL of preservative-free
1% lidocaine solution in the designated eye, and
group 2 dogs received 0.10 mL of preservative-free
2% lidocaine solution in the designated eye. After
injection, intraocular pressure was measured every
12 hours for 48 hours and then every 24 hours until
168 hours after injection. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was
performed preceding intracameral injection, 8 hours
after injection, and then every 24 hours until 168
hours after injection. Ultrasonic pachymetry and specular
microscopy were performed preceding intracameral
injection and 72 and 168 hours after injection.
Corneal thickness and endothelial cell density and
morphology were compared with baseline measurements.
Results—No significant differences were found in
intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, endothelial
cell density, and morphologic features in either group,
compared with baseline. A significant difference in
aqueous flare was found for treated and control eyes
8, 24, and 48 hours after injection, compared with
baseline. No significant difference in aqueous flare
was found between treated and control eyes within
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No adverse
ocular effects were detected after intracameral injection
of preservative-free 1% or 2% lidocaine solution;
thus, its use would be safe for intraocular pain management
in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1325–1330)
Objective—To screen for expression of 9 predominant
members of the matrix metalloproteinase
(MMP) family, including membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases
(MT-MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of
metalloproteinases (TIMPs), in primary tumor tissue
biopsy specimens of vaccine site-associated sarcomas
(VSS) in cats and compare expression profiles of
VSS with expression profiles of non-VSS and carcinomas.
Procedure—Tissue specimens were obtained from
primary tumor biopsy specimens of cats. Primers for
reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
assay were designed on the basis of known
sequences. Data were analyzed for patterns of
expression of MMPs, MT-MMPs, and TIMPs.
Differences in expression patterns were evaluated
among cats of differing genders, ages, metastasis
status, and overall survival durations, and between
cats with VSS and cats with non-VSS tumor types.
Results—A total of 31 primary tumor tissue biopsy
specimens and 6 nontumor (normal) tissue biopsy
specimens were screened for the presence of 6
MMPs and 3 TIMPs. Matrix metalloproteinase and
TIMP expression was found in non-VSS, carcinomas,
and VSS. No significant differences were found in patterns
of expression among tumor types. Metastasis
was found to be the only predictive factor for overall
survival duration. A significant correlation was found
between MMP2 and MT-MMP16 expression and
overall duration of survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The identification
of MMPs in feline VSS supports an underlying
inflammatory pathogenesis for this tumor. Expression
of MMP2 and MT-MMP16 were correlated with survival
time in our study. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;
Objective—To compare the mechanical properties of laryngeal tie-forward (LTF) surrogate constructs prepared with steel fixtures and No. 5 braided polyester or braided polyethylene by use of a standard or a modified suture placement technique.
Sample—32 LTF surrogate constructs.
Procedures—Surrogate constructs were prepared with steel fixtures and sutures (polyester or polyethylene) by use of a standard or modified suture placement technique. Constructs underwent single-load-to-failure testing. Maximal load at failure, elongation at failure, stiffness, and suture breakage sites were compared among constructs prepared with polyester sutures by means of the standard (n = 10) or modified (10) technique and those prepared with polyethylene sutures with the standard (6) or modified (6) technique.
Results—Polyethylene suture constructs had higher stiffness, higher load at failure, and lower elongation at failure than did polyester suture constructs. Constructs prepared with the modified technique had higher load at failure than did those prepared with the standard technique for both suture materials. All sutures broke at the knot in constructs prepared with the standard technique. Sutures broke at a location away from the knot in 13 of 16 constructs prepared with the modified technique (3 such constructs with polyethylene sutures broke at the knot).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested LTF surrogate constructs prepared with polyethylene sutures or the modified technique were stronger than those prepared with polyester sutures or the standard technique.
Objective—To determine reference ranges for results
of hematologic analyses of healthy Belgian Tervuren,
to compare results of hematologic analyses for
healthy Belgian Tervuren with results for healthy dogs
of other breeds, and to determine prevalence of physiologic
leukopenia in Belgian Tervuren.
Animals—180 healthy Belgian Tervuren and 63
healthy dogs of other breeds.
Procedure—Blood samples were analyzed by use of
an automated device. Reference ranges were calculated
for Belgian Tervuren by use of standard methods.
Results—Total WBC counts of Belgian Tervuren ranged
from 2.61 to 16.90 X 103/µl. Mean WBC count of
Belgian Tervuren (mean ± SEM, 7.04 ± 0.16 X 103/µl)
was significantly lower than mean count for control
dogs. Significantly more Belgian Tervuren (65/180;
36%) than control dogs (2/63; 3%) had WBC counts
< 6.00 X 103/µl. Percentage of Belgian Tervuren with
WBC count < 6.00 X 103/µl was low for dogs ≤ 2 years
old, increased sharply for dogs between 2 and 4 years
old, and was approximately 65% for dogs > 4 years
old. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts
were significantly lower, and RBC count, hematocrit,
and eosinophil fraction were significantly higher in
Belgian Tervuren than in control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that physiologic leukopenia, resulting from low
numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes,
may be a typical finding in a large percentage
of healthy Belgian Tervuren and is not of clinical
importance in otherwise healthy dogs. Healthy
Belgian Tervuren may also have RBC counts and
hematocrits higher than expected for healthy dogs.( J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:866–871)
Objective—To isolate and characterize the cDNA
sequence of canine stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase
[MMP]-3), screen various naturally developing
primary tumors of dogs, and assess the effect of
stromelysin-1 on survival of dogs with cancer.
Sample Population—3 canine cell lines and biopsy
specimens of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs.
Procedure—3 canine cell lines and biopsy specimens
of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs at the
University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were
used in the study. Primer sets based on human
stromelysin-1 and consensus sequences were
designed for expression, screening, and isolation. Two
additional primer sets were designed for screening.
Samples were assayed at least in duplicate. Data
were analyzed for differences in expression of
stromelysin-1 on the basis of sex, age, metastasis,
malignant versus nonmalignant tissue origin, and
duration of patient survival.
Results—A 1,479-bp cDNA nucleotide sequence was
amplified from established canine cell lines. The open
reading frame encoded a protein consisting of 478
amino acids. This sequence was 70% to 88% homologous
with stromelysin-1 of other species at the
amino acid level. Fifty-four samples were screened
for stromelysin-1. Of these, 34 (63%) had positive
results and 20 (37%) had negative results for expression.
Stromelysin-1 and metastasis were associated
with a poor prognosis for survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Stromelysin-1
is a potential activator of other members of the MMP
family. Additional studies are needed to investigate
the relationship between stromelysin-1 production
and aggressive biological behavior of tumors in dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1526–1535)
OBJECTIVE To compare the mechanical properties of laryngeal tie-forward (LTF) constructs prepared with different suture materials and suture placement patterns during single load to failure testing.
SAMPLE Larynges harvested from 50 horse cadavers and 5 intact horse cadavers.
PROCEDURES In vitro LTF constructs were created by a standard technique with polyester sutures, a standard technique with polyethylene sutures, a modified technique with metallic implants and polyester sutures, a modified technique with metallic implants and polyethylene sutures, or a modified tie-off technique with polyester sutures (10 of each type of construct). Mechanical properties including maximal load (N) at failure and failure mode were compared among constructs. Also, maximal loads at failure of the in vitro LTF constructs were compared with the loads exerted on the sutures tightened to achieve rostral laryngeal advancement in intact cadavers.
RESULTS Constructs prepared by a standard technique with polyethylene sutures had a significantly higher pull out strength than those prepared by a modified technique with metallic implants and either polyester or polyethylene sutures. For constructs prepared by a standard technique with polyethylene sutures or similarly placed polyester sutures, maximal load at failure did not differ but the failure mode did differ significantly. The load to failure for all in vitro constructs was higher than the maximal load measured during a range of motion test in intact horse cadavers.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that LTF procedures can be performed in live horses with any of the suture materials and techniques tested.
Objective—To determine whether conscious, unsedated
cats will inhale a nebulized material administered
via a facemask and whether this material will
reach the lower airways.
Animals—20 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Technetium Tc 99m-diaminetriaminopentaacetic
acid (99mTc-DTPA) was nebulized into a spacer
and administered to the cats via a closely fitting facemask.
By use of a gamma camera, images were then
immediately obtained to determine the distribution of
99mTc-DTPA within the lower airways.
Results—Images obtained by use of the gamma
camera revealed that all 20 cats had inhaled 99mTc-DTPA from the facemask. In each cat, deposition of
the radiopharmaceutical agent was evident throughout
the lung fields.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Awake cats
that were not used to the application of a facemask
did inhale substances from such a device.
Aerosolization of medications may be a feasible route
of administration for cats with lower airway disease.
(Am J Vet Res 2004;65:806–809)
To characterize the pharmacokinetics of a clinically relevant dose of misoprostol administered PO or per rectum (PR) to horses.
8 healthy adult horses.
In a randomized 3-way crossover design, horses received a single dose of misoprostol (5 μg/kg) administered PO (with horses fed and unfed) and PR, with a minimum 3-week washout period separating the experimental conditions. Blood samples were obtained before and at various points after drug administration (total, 24 hours), and plasma concentrations of misoprostol free acid were measured.
Mean maximum plasma concentration of misoprostol was significantly higher in the PR condition (mean ± SD, 967 ± 492 pg/mL) and unfed PO condition (655 ± 259 pg/mL) than in the fed PO condition (352 ± 109 pg/mL). Mean area under the concentration-versus-time curve was significantly lower in the PR condition (219 ± 131 pg•h/mL) than in the unfed (1,072 ± 360 pg•h/mL) and fed (518 ± 301 pg•h/mL) PO conditions. Mean time to maximum concentration was ≤ 30 minutes for all conditions. Mean disappearance half-life was shortest in the PR condition (21 ± 29 minutes), compared with values for the unfed (170 ± 129 minutes) and fed (119 ± 51 minutes) PO conditions. No adverse effects were noted.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Misoprostol was rapidly absorbed and eliminated regardless of whether administered PO or PR to horses. Rectal administration may be a viable alternative for horses that cannot receive misoprostol PO, but this route may require more frequent administration to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations.
To compare measurements of left ventricular volume and function derived from 2-D transthoracic echocardiography (2DE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and the ultrasound velocity dilution cardiac output method (UDCO) with those derived from cardiac MRI (cMRI) in healthy neonatal foals.
6 healthy 1-week-old Standardbred foals.
Foals were anesthetized and underwent 2DE, TEE, and cMRI; UDCO was performed simultaneously with 2DE. Images acquired by 2DE included the right parasternal 4-chamber (R4CH), left apical 4- and 2-chamber (biplane), and right parasternal short-axis M-mode (M-mode) views. The longitudinal 4-chamber view was obtained by TEE. Measurements assessed included left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction, stroke volume (LVSV), cardiac output (CO), and cardiac index (CI). Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare measurements derived from biplane, R4CH, and M-mode images and UDCO with cMRI-derived measurements. Repeatability of measurements calculated by 3 independent reviewers was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient.
Compared with cMRI, all 2DE and TEE modalities underestimated LVEDV and LVESV and overestimated ejection fraction, CO, and CI. The LVSV was underestimated by the biplane, R4CH, and TEE modalities and overestimated by UDCO and M-mode methods. However, the R4CH-derived LVSV, CO, and CI were clinically comparable to cMRI-derived measures. Repeatability was good to excellent for measures derived from the biplane, R4CH, M-mode, UDCO, and cMRI methods and poor for TEE-derived measures.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
All assessed modalities yielded clinically acceptable measurements of LVEDV, LVESV, and function, but those measurements should not be used interchangeably when monitoring patient progress.
Objective—To determine the electrodiagnostic and
histologic response of short-term increases of
intraocular pressure (IOP) on transient pattern electroretinograms
(PERG) and flash electroretinograms
(FERG) in the eyes of dogs.
Animals—8 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Transient PERG and FERG waveforms
were recorded from dogs (while anesthetized) as IOP
was increased from baseline (7 to 19 mm Hg) to 90
mm Hg. One hundred mean PERG responses and a
single FERG response were recorded at each step
during 3 recording sessions. Globes of each dog were
enucleated after euthanasia on posttreatment day 7
and evaluated by a pathologist.
Results—Increases in spatial frequency resulted in
decreased amplitudes of N2 (second negative PERG
peak). Increases in IOP resulted in decreases in all 3
PERG waveforms and the FERG waveform. All values
began to return to baseline after short-term increases
in IOP on day 0, and waveforms were not significantly
different on posttreatment days 3 and 7.
Conclusions—Data suggest that short-term
increases in IOP affect PERG and FERG waveforms,
and PERG waveforms are more sensitive to increases
in IOP. Differences were not detected between
treated and control eyes on histologic examination.
Further studies are necessary to determine at what
IOP permanent damage to ganglion and photoreceptor
cells will develop and whether PERG is a reliable
clinical diagnostic technique for use in dogs to
reveal retinal damage that is secondary to increased
IOP prior to changes in waveforms generated by
FERG in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1087–1091)