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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate complication rates for various types of mastectomy procedures, identify factors associated with an increased risk of complications, and determine the consequences of such complications.

ANIMALS

140 female dogs that underwent 154 separate mastectomy procedures to treat mammary gland tumors.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs in the Penn Vet Shelter Canine Mammary Tumor Program from July 2009 to March 2015 were reviewed. Data regarding signalment, tumor characteristics (ie, number and size, benign or malignant, and bilateral or unilateral), mastectomy type, anesthesia time, concurrent ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy, surgeons’ qualifications, antimicrobial administration after surgery, postoperative placement of surgical drains, and complications (seroma, abscess, dehiscence, or infection) were collected. Complications that required hospitalization were recorded. Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate associations between variables of interest and complications. Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with an increased risk of complications.

RESULTS

Complication rate following all mastectomy procedures was 16.9% (26/154); of these, 9 (34.6%) required hospitalization. High body weight, undergoing bilateral mastectomy, and postoperative antimicrobial administration were associated with significantly increased odds of complications. The odds of complications associated with postoperative antimicrobial administration, however, varied according to mastectomy type; dogs undergoing chain mastectomy that did not receive antimicrobials postoperatively had the highest odds of developing complications. Dogs undergoing concurrent ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy had significantly decreased odds of complications.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Previously spayed dogs with a large body size that underwent the most extensive mastectomy procedures had increased odds of having postoperative complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the use of thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery (TAPS) for partial and complete lung lobectomy in small animal patients and to evaluate short-term outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 client-owned dogs and cats.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent a partial or complete TAPS lung lobectomy were reviewed. All patients underwent general anesthesia and were positioned in lateral recumbency with the affected hemithorax uppermost. One-lung ventilation was not implemented in any patient. For initial exploration, a 5- to 10-mm incision was made for insertion of a 30° telescope approximately 5 to 7 rib spaces away from the site of the pulmonary lesion in the dorsal third of the thorax. All subsequent incision placements were case dependent and determined by the location of the lesion to be resected. Following lesion localization, a 2- to 7-cm minithoracotomy incision was made with direct thoracoscopic visualization without the use of rigid rib retractors. In 10 of 11 patients, a 360° wound retraction device was placed at the minithoracotomy site prior to exteriorization and resection of the affected lung. Lymph nodes were inspected intraoperatively, but biopsies were not performed; incisions were closed routinely, and a thoracostomy tube was placed in all patients.

Results—3 cats and 8 dogs underwent successful partial (5) or complete (6) TAPS lung lobectomy over a 5-year period (2008 through 2013). Median surgery time was 92.7 minutes (range, 77 to 150 minutes). Thoracostomy tubes were removed a median of 22.3 hours after surgery (range, 18 to 36 hours). The median time to discharge was 3.1 days (range, 1 to 6 days). No intraoperative complications were encountered. All patients were discharged from the hospital, with 9 of 11 patients alive 6 months after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that lung lobectomy by means of TAPS can be successfully performed in dogs and cats. When compared with total thoracoscopic surgery, TAPS may offer a more technically feasible approach from both a surgical and anesthetic standpoint, because it provides the benefits of minimally invasive thoracic surgery without the necessity of 1-lung ventilation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of exposure to canine influenza virus (CIV) in dogs in a metropolitan animal shelter.

Design—Serologic survey.

Animals—74 dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly selected from the canine shelter population. A physical examination was performed, and blood samples were obtained and submitted for serologic testing for the detection of antibodies against CIV. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of factors (body condition score, nasal discharge, coughing, rectal temperature, number of days in the shelter, and relinquished vs stray) with positive results.

Results—31 of 74 (42%) dogs were seropositive for antibodies against CIV. Positive serologic test results were detected for 6 of 39 (15%) dogs housed in the shelter for ≤ 7 days and for 25 of 35 (71%) dogs housed in the shelter for ≥ 8 days. Number of days in the shelter was the only factor significantly associated with positive serologic test results. For every 3 days in the shelter, the odds of a positive serologic test result increased significantly by 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results suggested that more dogs were exposed to CIV in the shelter than were exposed in the urban environment. This has serious implications for design and management of animal shelters.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of nonneoplastic middle ear disease among cats undergoing necropsy and the prevalence of clinical abnormalities in cats in which nonneoplastic middle ear disease was identified.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—59 cats that underwent necropsy between January 1991 and August 2007.

Procedures—Medical records were searched to identify cats in which nonneoplastic middle ear disease was identified at necropsy. For cats included in the study, data that were recorded included signalment, initial complaint, whether the cat had any clinical signs of middle or external ear disease, whether the cat had upper respiratory tract disease, necropsy diagnosis, gross appearance of the bullae, and reason for euthanasia. Signs of middle ear disease that were considered included unilateral peripheral vestibular disease without motor deficits, Horner syndrome, and facial nerve paralysis.

Results—Of the 3,442 cats that underwent necropsy during the study period, 59 (1.7%) had nonneoplastic middle ear disease. Six of the 59 (10%) cats, including 1 cat that was affected bilaterally, had clinical signs of middle ear disease. Of these, 5 had signs of unilateral peripheral vestibular disease, and 1 had Horner syndrome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that most cats with nonneoplastic middle ear disease did not have associated clinical signs. Findings may be of clinical relevance for cats in which middle ear disease is identified as an incidental finding during computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for unrelated diseases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Results of abdominal ultrasonography in 63 dogs and cats with suspected congenital portosystemic shunts (PSS) were compared with surgical, portographic, and necropsy findings. True-positive ultrasonographic results were found in 33 animals, and 2 animals had falsepositive results for detection of single extrahepatic PSS. In 4 animals, results were true negative and in 8 animals, were false-negative for detection of extrahepatic PSS. The false-negative rate decreased substantially with operator experience. The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of extrahepatic PSS in these animals was 80.5%, and the specificity was 66.7%. In 5 other animals, ultrasonographic examination was strongly suggestive of the existence of a shunt, but the vessel could not be definitively imaged. All 5 animals had single extrahepatic shunts. Eleven animals had true-positive results for detection of intrahepatic PSS. One animal had false-positive ultrasonographic results for intrahepatic PSS, but an extrahepatic shunt was diagnosed at surgery. The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of intrahepatic PSS was 100%.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinicopathologic features, surgical management, complications, and long-term outcome associated with diseases of the extrahepatic portion of the biliary tract treated via choledochal stent placement in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—13 dogs.

Procedure—Data were obtained from medical records, and follow-up information was obtained via reexamination or telephone interview with owners or referring veterinarians.

Results—10 dogs had extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO), 6 as a result of pancreatitis. Two dogs had rupture of the common bile duct associated with cholelithiasis. In 1 dog, a stent was placed prophylactically after gastroduodenostomy was performed for a perforated duodenal ulcer. Nine of 13 dogs survived the perioperative period and were discharged. No recurrence of EHBO or other complications developed in the discharged dogs while the stents were in place. Median follow-up period from surgery to last owner contact was 13.3 months. In 1 dog, the stent was removed endoscopically 10 months after surgery and EHBO recurred 9 months after stent removal because of cholangitis. In 4 of 5 dogs that were discharged from the hospital, in which the fate of the stent could be confirmed and the stent was secured to the duodenal wall with absorbable suture materials, the stents were passed in the feces 1 to 11 months after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Choledochal tube stenting is an effective method of decompression of the extrahepatic portion of the biliary tract in dogs and provides a less complex alternative to traditional cholecystoenterostomy techniques in select cases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether glutamine (GLN), tryptophan (TRP), and tryptophan metabolite concentrations are higher in cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) dogs with naturally occurring portosystemic shunts (PSS), compared with control dogs.

Animals—11 dogs with confirmed PSS and 12 control dogs fed low- and high-protein diets.

Procedure—Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected from all dogs. Serum and CSF concentrations of GLN, alanine, serine, TRP, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and quinolinic acid (QUIN) were measured.

Results—Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of GLN, TRP, and 5-HIAA were significantly higher in PSS dogs, compared with control dogs fed high- or lowprotein diets. Cerebrospinal fluid QUIN concentration was significantly higher in PSS dogs, compared with control dogs fed the low-protein diet. Serum QUIN concentration was significantly lower in PSS dogs, compared with control dogs fed either high- or lowprotein diets.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An increase in CNS GLN concentration is associated with high CSF concentrations of TRP and TRP metabolites in dogs with PSS. High CSF 5-HIAA concentrations indicate an increased flux of TRP through the CNS serotonin metabolic pathway, whereas high CSF QUIN concentrations indicate an increased metabolism of TRP through the indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase pathway. The high CSF QUIN concentrations in the face of low serum QUIN concentrations in dogs with PSS indicates that QUIN production from TRP is occurring in the CNS. High concentrations of QUIN and other TRP metabolites in the CNS may contribute to neurologic abnormalities found in dogs with PSS and hepatic encephalopathy. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1167–1171)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify within guanosine triphosphate–binding proteins (G proteins) the subset of inhibitory G proteins (Gi) that have decreased expression in adenomatous thyroid glands obtained from hyperthyroid cats.

Sample Population—Adenomatous thyroid glands obtained from 5 hyperthyroid cats and normal thyroid glands obtained from 3 age-matched euthyroid cats.

Procedure—Expression of Gi1, Gi2, and Gi3 in enriched membrane preparations from thyroid glands was quantified by use of immunoblotting with Gi subtype-specific antibodies.

Results—Expression of Gi2 was significantly decreased in tissues of hyperthyroid glands, compared with expression in normal thyroid tissue. Expression of Gi1 and Gi3 was not significantly different between normal thyroid tissues and tissues from hyperthyroid glands.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A decrease in Gi2 expression decreases inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and allows a relative increase in stimulatory G protein expression. This results in increased amounts of cAMP and subsequent unregulated mitogenesis and hormone production in hyperthyroid cells. Decreased Gi2 expression may explain excessive growth and function of the thyroid gland in cats with hyperthyroidism. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1478–1482)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe complications and outcome associated with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion treated with pleuroperitoneal shunts in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—14 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records at 4 veterinary schools were examined to identify dogs with chronic nonseptic pleural effusion that were treated by use of a pleuroperitoneal shunt between 1985 and 1999. Signalment, history, physical examination and laboratory findings, cause and type of pleural effusion, medical and surgical treatments, complications, and outcome were reviewed.

Results—10 of 14 dogs had idiopathic chylothorax, and 4 had an identified disease. All but 1 dog with idiopathic chylothorax and 1 dog with chylothorax from a heart base tumor had unsuccessful thoracic duct ligation prior to pump placement. No intraoperative complications developed during shunt placement. Short-term complications developed in 7 of 13 dogs, necessitating shunt removal in 2 dogs and euthanasia in 1. Eight of 11 dogs with long-term follow- up developed complications; the overall mean survival time and the interval in which dogs remained free of clinical signs of pleural effusion were 27 months (range, 1 to 108 months) and 20 months (range, 0.5 to 108 months), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pleuroperitoneal shunts can effectively palliate clinical signs associated with intractable pleural effusion in dogs. Numerous short- and long-term complications related to the shunt should be expected. Most complications can be successfully managed, but even when shunts are functional some treatments fail because of severe abdominal distension or massive pleural fluid production that overwhelms the functional capacity of the shunt. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1590–1597)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 82 client-owned dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy were reviewed. History, signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging findings, and results of colonoscopy (including complications) were recorded. When available, tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy and by means of surgical biopsy were reviewed by a single board-certified pathologist. Histologic features and tumor grade (when applicable) of tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy versus surgical biopsy were compared.

RESULTS Multiple rectal masses were observed during colonoscopy in 6 of the 82 dogs, but no lesions were visualized orad to the colorectal junction. Results of histologic evaluation of surgical biopsy specimens were consistent with a diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia in 58 of 64 dogs, of which 71% were classified as benign adenoma or polyp and 29% were classified as adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma. Complications of colonoscopy occurred in 3 of 82 dogs but were considered minor. A discrepancy in diagnosis occurred in 5 of 16 dogs for which both colonoscopic and surgical biopsy samples were available for histologic review.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that multiple rectal masses are uncommon in dogs, and secondary lesions orad to the colorectal junction were not found in this study. Colonoscopy was associated with few complications, but the need for colonoscopic assessment of the entire colon in this patient population may merit reevaluation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association