To compare anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) and alfaxalone-butorphanol-midazolam (ABM) in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).
20 naked mole-rats.
Naked mole-rats received AKD (alfaxalone, 2 mg/kg; ketamine, 20 mg/kg; and dexmedetomidine, 0.02 mg/kg; n = 10) or ABM (alfaxalone, 2 mg/kg; butorphanol, 2 mg/kg; and midazolam, 1 mg/kg; 9) IM; 1 animal was removed from the study. Atipamezole (I mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg) were administered 40 minutes after anesthetic induction (defined as loss of the righting reflex) with AKD and ABM, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and reflexes were recorded every 5 minutes.
The ABM group had significantly longer median times for induction and recovery than the AKD group. Administration of ABM resulted in significantly lower respiratory rates than administration of AKD from time of anesthetic induction to 10 minutes after induction. Respiratory rate significantly decreased in the AKD group from I0 minutes after induction through the end of the anesthetic period but did not change over time in the ABM group. Males had higher respiratory rates in both groups. Loss of the righting reflex was still evident 40 minutes after induction in both groups. In the AKD group, all tested reflexes were absent from I0 to 40 minutes after induction; the ABM group had variable reflexes that recovered within individual animals over time.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Both AKD and ABM provided effective immobilization in naked mole-rats, but AKD appeared to provide more consistent and deeper anesthesia, compared with administration of ABM.
To compare the effects of a dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) anesthetic protocol versus isoflurane inhalation anesthesia on echocardiographic variables and plasma cardiac troponin 1 (cTnI) concentration in black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs; Cynomys ludovicianus).
Nine 6-month-old sexually intact male captive BTPDs.
Each BTPD was randomly assigned to be anesthetized by IM administration of dexmedetomidine (0.25 mg/kg), ketamine (40 mg/kg), and midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) or via inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen. Three days later, each BTPD underwent the alternative anesthetic protocol. Echocardiographic data and a blood sample were collected within 5 minutes after initiation and just prior to cessation of each 45-minute-long anesthetic episode.
Time or anesthetic protocol had no significant effect on echocardiographic variables. For either protocol, plasma cTnI concentration did not differ with time. When administered as the first treatment, neither anesthetic protocol significantly affected plasma cTnI concentration. However, with regard to findings for the second treatments, plasma cTnI concentrations in isoflurane-treated BTPDs (n = 4; data for 1 animal were not analyzed because of procedural problems) were higher than values in DKM-treated BTPDs (4), which was suspected to be a carryover effect from prior DKM treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The DKM and isoflurane anesthetic protocols did not have any significant effect on echocardiographic measurements in the BTPDs. Increases in plasma cTnI concentration during the second anesthetic episode were evident when BTPDs underwent the DKM anesthetic protocol as the first of the 2 treatments, suggestive of potential myocardial injury associated with that anesthetic protocol. Clinicians should consider these findings, especially when evaluating BTPDs with known or suspected cardiac disease.
To evaluate and compare the anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-midazolam (AKM) and alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).
9 male black-tailed prairie dogs.
Prairie dogs were anesthetized with AKM (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 1.5 mg/kg midazolam) and AKD (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.15 mg/kg dexmedetomidine) in a prospective, complete cross-over study. Atipamezole (1.5 mg/kg) after AKD or flumazenil (0.1mg/kg) after AKM was administered 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Onset of general anesthesia, physiologic parameters, depth of anesthesia, and time to recovery after reversal administration were evaluated for each treatment.
Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs that varied in duration. The median induction times for AKM and AKD were 82 and 60 seconds, respectively. The median recovery times for AKM and AKD were 27 and 21 minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between protocols for induction (P = .37) and recovery (P = .51) times. All measured reflexes were absent in all animals at 5 minutes postinduction, with hindlimb reflexes returning prior to forelimb reflexes. Heart rate was lower but respiratory rate was higher in the AKD treatment. Body temperature decreased significantly for both protocols (P < .001) and was significantly lower with AKM than AKD (P < .001).
Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs. For both protocols, heat support and oxygen support are indicated.
Case Description—A 4-year-old castrated male domestic ferret from central Massachusetts was evaluated for weight loss over a 1.5-month period and for 2 days of retching, diarrhea, and signs of lethargy. It had been housed indoors, with 2 other ferrets, 2 cats, and humans that lacked signs or symptoms of disease.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed a thin body condition, tachypnea, an increase in respiratory effort, and retching. Splenomegaly was detected during abdominal palpation. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed lymphopenia, lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia. A pulmonary bronchointerstitial pattern was evident on radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed a suspected pancreatic mass and mesenteric lymphadenopathy.
Treatment and Outcome—After 2 weeks of medical treatment and once clinical signs resolved, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and a lymph node biopsy specimen was collected. Histologic evaluation of the specimen revealed Cryptococcus-like organisms. Antifungal treatment was initiated with itraconazole (PO) and amphotericin B (IV). The ferret died after 2 days of treatment. A full necropsy was performed, revealing multicentric cryptococcosis affecting the lungs, brain, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed lung tissue was submitted for DNA extraction, and the organism was identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of disseminated cryptococcosis in a North American ferret. This case is unique in that the ferret lived indoors, in a geographic region in which reports of cryptococcosis are rare. The genotyping technique used to identify the Cryptococcus strain can aid in better understanding the epidemiology of cryptococcosis.
Case Description—A 6-year-old 0.82-kg (1.8-lb) spayed female domestic ferret was evaluated because of a 1-month history of decreased activity that had progressively worsened over the past week. The ferret had previously been determined to have adrenocortical disease and was undergoing medical management for the associated clinical signs.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed lameness of the right hind limb with evidence of pain elicited during palpation of the right femur. Results of a CBC suggested mild anemia, and those of a serum biochemical analysis indicated a high blood glucose concentration. Radiography of the limb revealed extensive lysis of the right femur. Cytologic evaluation of a fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion revealed a dominant plasma cell component. Plasma cell neoplasia was suspected on the basis of these findings.
Treatment and Outcome—Radical right hind limb amputation with mid to caudal hemipelvectomy was performed. Histologic evaluation of the lesion allowed a diagnosis of lymphoma with plasmablastic features, and immunohistochemical testing revealed a few CD79α-postive neoplastic cells and rare BLA36-positive cells. Adjunctive antineoplastic treatment with systemically administered multidrug chemotherapy was initiated. Six months after surgery, the ferret was reevaluated, and chemotherapy was discontinued when results of clinicopathologic tests, whole body survey radiography, and abdominal ultrasonography suggested no recurrence of the disease.
Clinical Relevance—The ferret appeared to cope well with radical hind limb amputation, and the chemotherapeutic protocol used was easy to administer. This treatment approach might lead to better owner and patient compliance in other cases of lymphoma in ferrets.
To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).
9 zoo-kept BTPDs.
The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.
Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.
A male Major Mitchell’s cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) of unknown age presented with an ulcerated mass on the ventral tail caudodorsal to the cloaca.
An impression smear of the mass showed spindle cell atypia. Multiple biopsies were submitted for histopathology with inconclusive results. A CT scan revealed a soft tissue mass causing compression of the cloacal lumen. The patient underwent surgical debulking, and a core of the mass was submitted again for histopathology, which reported it as fibrosarcoma.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Under repeated general isoflurane gas anesthesia, the patient received a course of definitive radiation therapy totaling 60 Gy and divided in 3 Gy X 20 fractions. By treatment completion, the lesion had decreased in size with necrotic debris on the surface. Surrounding tissues appeared healthy and no adverse effects were observed. As of 1.5 years post-treatment, the mass appears completely healed with no signs of reoccurrence.
This case suggests that radiation therapy with this protocol could be an effective treatment option for fibrosarcoma in avian species.