To evaluate the influence of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) graft augmentation on the biomechanical properties and resistance to gap formation in a canine gastrocnemius tendon repair model.
28 canine cadaveric hind limbs.
Respective hindlimbs from each dog were randomized to one of two groups (n = 14/group) using a 3-loop–pulley (3LP) pattern alone or 3LP + SDFT graft augmentation. Biomechanical parameters evaluated included yield, peak, and failure loads; tensile loads required to create 1- and 3-mm gap formations; and mode of construct failure.
Mean yield and failure loads for the 3LP + SDFT graft group were 483.6 ± 148.0 N and 478.3 ± 147.9 N, respectively, and were greater compared to the 3LP group (34.2 ± 6.7 N and 34.0 ± 8.0 N, P < .0001). Loads to both 1- and 3-mm gap formations for the 3LP + SDFT graft group were greater compared to 3LP alone (P < .001). Failure modes did not differ between groups (P = .120), with constructs failing most commonly by suture pulling through opposed tendinous tissues whereas SDFT grafts remained intact.
SDFT graft augmentation increased yield, peak, and failure forces 14-fold across all examined biomechanical variables compared to the 3LP group. The 3LP + SDFT graft group required 3.6X and 6.5X greater loads to cause a 1- and 3-mm gap, respectively, between tendon ends. These data support the biomechanical advantages of SDFT graft augmentation to increase repair-site strength and to promote resistance to gap formation of the tenorrhaphy. Additional in vivo studies are required to determine the effect of SDFT augmentation on clinical function and active limb use after graft harvest in dogs.
To evaluate the effect of knot location on the biomechanical strength and gapping characteristics of ex vivo canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs.
36 cadaveric gastrocnemius tendons from 18 adult dogs.
Tendons were randomly assigned to 3 groups (12 tendons/group) and sharply transected and repaired by means of a core locking-loop suture with the knot at 1 of 3 locations (exposed on the external surface of the tendon, buried just underneath the external surface of the tendon, or buried internally between the apposed tendon ends). All repairs were performed with size-0 polypropylene suture. All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, failure, and peak forces, mode of failure, and forces required for 1- and 3-mm gap formation were compared among the 3 knot-location groups.
Mean yield, failure, and peak forces and mean forces required for 1- and 3-mm gap formation did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The mode of failure also did not differ significantly among the 3 groups, and the majority (33/36 [92%]) of constructs failed owing to the suture pulling through the tendinous substance.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Final knot location did not significantly affect the biomechanical strength and gapping characteristics of canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs. Therefore, all 3 evaluated knot locations may be acceptable for tendon repair in dogs. In vivo studies are necessary to further elucidate the effect of knot location in suture patterns commonly used for tenorrhaphy on tendinous healing and collagenous remodeling at the repair site.
To determine effects of bite depth for placement of an epitendinous suture on the biomechanical strength and gap formation of repaired canine tendons.
48 superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) obtained from 24 canine cadavers.
Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (16 tendons/group). Each SDFT was transected and then repaired with a continuous epitendinous suture placed with a bite depth of 1, 2, or 3 mm for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Specimens were loaded to failure. Failure mode, gap formation, yield force, peak force, and failure force were analyzed.
Yield, peak, and failure forces differed significantly between groups 1 and 3 and groups 2 and 3 but not between groups 1 and 2. Comparison of the force resisted at 1 and 3 mm of gapping revealed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3 and groups 2 and 3 but not between groups 1 and 2. Failure mode did not differ among groups; suture pull-through occurred in 43 of 48 (89.6%) specimens.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Increasing bite depth of an epitendinous suture toward the center of the tendon substance increased repair site strength and decreased the incidence of gap formation. Repair of tendon injuries in dogs by use of an epitendinous suture with bites made deep into the tendon should result in a stronger repair, which potentially would allow loading and rehabilitation to begin sooner after surgery. Suture techniques should be investigated in vivo to determine effects on tendinous healing and blood supply before clinical implementation.
To evaluate the effect of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture (nES) pattern with and without a core locking-loop (LL) suture on the biomechanical properties of ex vivo canine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) tenorrhaphy constructs.
54 cadaveric forelimb SDFTs from 27 musculoskeletally normal adult dogs.
Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (18 SDFTs/group): sharply transected and repaired with a core LL suture alone (group 1), an nES pattern alone (group 2), or a combination of a core LL suture and nES pattern (group 3). All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, peak, and failure loads; gap formation incidence; and mode of failure were compared among the 3 groups.
Mean yield, peak, and failure loads differed significantly among the 3 groups and were greatest for group 3 and lowest for group 1. Mean yield, peak, and failure loads for group 3 constructs were greater than those for group 1 constructs by 50%, 47%, and 44%, respectively. None of the group 3 constructs developed 3-mm gaps. The most common mode of failure was suture pulling through the tendon for groups 1 (12/18) and 2 (12/18) and suture breakage for group 3 (13/18).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested augmentation of a core LL suture with an nES pattern significantly increased the strength of and prevented 3-mm gap formation at the tenorrhaphy site in ex vivo canine SDFTs. In vivo studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness and practicality of the nES pattern for SDFT repair in dogs.
To determine the effect of epitendinous suture (ES) caliber on the tensile strength of flexor tendon repairs in cadaveric specimens from dogs.
60 cadaveric superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) from 30 skeletally mature dogs.
Specimens were randomly assigned to 5 suture caliber groups (n = 12 SDFTs/group). After sharp transection, SDFTs were repaired by placement of a simple continuous circumferential ES created with size-0, 2-0, 3-0, 4-0, or 5-0 polypropylene suture. Constructs were preloaded to 2 N and load tested to failure. Loads at yield, peak, and failure and mode of failure were compared among groups by statistical methods.
Yield, peak, and failure loads for SDFT repair constructs were positively correlated with ES caliber and did not differ between the size-0 and 2-0 groups on pairwise comparisons. Yield load was significantly greater for size-0, 2-0, and 3-0 groups than for the 4-0 and 5-0 groups. Peak and failure loads were significantly greater for the size-0 and 2-0 groups than for the remaining groups. Most size-0 (12/12), 2-0 (12/12), and 3-0 (10/12) group constructs failed because of ES pull-through; several constructs in the 4-0 group (5/12) and most in the 5-0 group (11/12) failed because of ES breakage.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested size-0 and 2-0 sutures should be considered when placing an ES for flexor tendon repairs in dogs. However, in vivo studies are needed determine the effects of increasing ES caliber on clinical outcomes for dogs undergoing these procedures.
To evaluate the effects of using an internal fixation plate to augment primary 3-loop pulley (3LP) repair of canine gastrocnemius tendons (GTs).
48 cadaveric GTs from 24 adult dogs.
GTs were dissected free from other tissues, transected, and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 12/group). GTs were repaired with 2-0 polypropylene with a 3LP repair alone or a 3LP repair augmented with a 3-hole veterinary cuttable plate (3VCP), a 5-hole veterinary cuttable plate (5VCP), or a 7-hole veterinary cuttable plate (7VC P). Biomechanical loads, construct stiffness, gap formation, and failure modes were compared between groups.
Yield, peak, and failure loads were all significantly increased for the 5VCP and 7VCP groups, compared with the 3LP alone group. Increasing plate length from 3VCP to 5VCP and from 3VCP to 7VCP increased yield, peak, and failure loads. No differences were found between the 3LP and 3VCP groups with regard to yield and peak loads, but failure load was increased in the 3VCP group. Loads to create 1-mm and 3-mm gaps were significantly greater for the 5VCP and 7VCP groups, compared with the 3LP alone and 3VCP groups. Mode of plate attachment failure differed among groups.
Tendon plate augmentation may be a viable surgical option to increase the strength of the tenorrhaphy in dogs. However, in vivo studies evaluating the effects of plate augmentation on the tendon blood supply and progression of healing are needed prior to clinical application.
OBJECTIVE To describe outcomes for dogs after treatment of craniodorsal hip luxation with closed reduction and Ehmer sling placement and investigate potential risk factors for sling-associated tissue injury or reluxation of the affected hip at or near the time of sling removal.
DESIGN Retrospective multicenter cohort study.
ANIMALS 92 dogs.
PROCEDURES Case information was solicited from 10 veterinary medical facilities through electronic communications. Data on patient demographic information, cause of injury, presence of concurrent injuries, details of Ehmer sling placement and management, and outcome at sling removal were collected. Data were analyzed for associations with outcomes.
RESULTS 40 of 92 (43.5%) dogs had reluxation of the affected hip joint at or near the time of sling removal. Odds of reluxation occurring for dogs that had the initial injury attributed to trauma were 5 times those for dogs without known trauma (OR, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 18.7). Forty-six (50%) dogs had soft tissue injuries secondary to sling use; 17 of these dogs had injuries classified as severe, including 1 dog that required limb amputation. Odds of severe sling injury for dogs that had poor owner compliance with home care instructions noted in the record, those that had the sling placed by an intern rather than a board-certified surgeon or resident, and those that were noted to have a soiled or wet bandage on ≥ 1 occasion were 12.5, 4.0, and 5.7 times those for dogs without these findings, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Placement of an Ehmer sling following closed reduction of a craniodorsal hip luxation had a low success rate and high complication rate.