Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 44 items for

  • Author or Editor: Christopher K. Cebra x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical signs of disease, and clinical response to insulin in equids with hypertriglyceridemia.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 horses, 17 ponies, and 7 donkeys with hypertriglyceridemia.

Procedures—For analysis of medical record data, horses, donkeys, and ponies with multiple serum or plasma triglycerides measurements were separated into groups. Hypertriglyceridemic equids that were (HT-I; n = 14) or were not (HT-N; 10) treated with insulin consisted of equids with an initial triglycerides concentration > 44 mg/dL but < 500 mg/dL. Equids with an initial triglycerides concentration > 500 mg/dL, all of which were treated with insulin, constituted the lipemic group (LIP-I; 20). Each group included a full range of ages. Pretreatment and posttreatment values from serum or plasma biochemical analyses were compared among groups.

Results—No age predilection for hypertriglyceridemia was apparent. Of the 29 female equids, only 7 (24%) were lactating or pregnant. Multiple illnesses were diagnosed in hypertriglyceridemic equids, including colitis (14/44; 32%) and colic (9/44; 20%). Many breeds were affected, including 16 (36%) American Miniature Horses and 9 (20%) Arabians or Arabian crossbreds. The mean posttreatment triglycerides concentration was not significantly different from the initial value in HT-N equids (175 vs 125 mg/dL) but was significantly lower than the pretreatment triglycerides concentration in HT-I (252 vs 55 mg/dL) and LIP-I (872 vs 87 mg/dL) equids.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equids of all ages and sexes with various diseases had hypertriglyceridemia. Insulin treatment decreased the triglycerides concentrations in affected equids.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To report clinical findings for New World camelids with uterine torsion and to compare results of 3 methods of correction.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

11 llamas and 3 alpacas with 20 uterine torsions.

Procedure

Information concerning history, clinical signs, management, and postpartum complications was retrieved from medical records. Information concerning subsequent reproductive performance was obtained by telephone interview of owners.

Results

Uterine torsion was corrected by celiotomy (n = 7), transvaginal manipulation (5), or rolling the dam (8). Direction of 19 of 20 torsions was clockwise when viewed from the rear. Retention of fetal membranes was reported for 5 camelids that underwent celiotomy, but was not reported in camelids after nonsurgical correction. The uterus prolapsed in 1 llama that underwent celiotomy and in another that underwent the rolling technique. Although 2 camelids that underwent celiotomy subsequently failed to conceive, all camelids treated by nonsurgical techniques conceived.

Clinical Implications

Uterine torsion in camelids may be diagnosed by methods similar to those used in cattle. Surgical and nonsurgical methods can be used to correct torsion, and postpartum complications are rare when torsion is corrected by a nonsurgical method. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:600–602)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine typical clinical and radiographic findings in a group of New World camelids with tooth root abscesses and to determine outcome after medical and surgical treatment.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

23 llamas and alpacas with radiographic and clinical evidence of tooth root abscesses.

Procedure

Disease history, signalment, physical and radiographic examination findings, bacteriologic culture results, treatment, and short-term and long-term outcome were retrieved from the medical records.

Results

Local swelling was the most common clinical abnormality in camelids with tooth root abscesses. Mandibular molars were affected most commonly, and bacteriologic culture of samples from lesions often revealed facultative anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotic treatment for at least 30 days, surgical extraction of the affected tooth, and a root canal procedure were used successfully to treat tooth root abscesses.

Clinical Implications

Both surgical and medical treatment of tooth root abscesses may lead to successful resolution of clinical signs in New World camelids. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:819–822)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe a technique for abdominocentesis in camelids and report peritoneal fluid biochemical and cytologic findings from healthy llamas and alpacas.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—17 adult llamas and 5 adult alpacas.

Procedures—Right paracostal abdominocentesis was performed. Peritoneal fluid was collected by gravity flow into tubes containing potassium-EDTA for cell count and cytologic evaluation and lithium heparin for biochemical analysis. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture into heparinized tubes at the same time. Cytologic components were quantified. Fluid pH and concentrations of total carbon dioxide, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, and glucose were compared between peritoneal fluid and venous blood.

Results—All but 3 camelids had peritoneal fluid cell counts of < 3,000 nucleated cells/μL, with < 2,000 neutrophils/μL and < 1,040 large mononuclear cells/μL. All but 1 had peritoneal fluid protein concentrations of ≥ 2.5 g/dL. Peritoneal fluid of camelids generally contained slightly less glucose, lactate, and sodium and roughly equal concentrations of potassium and chloride as venous blood.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Peritoneal fluid was collected safely from healthy camelids. Compared with blood, peritoneal fluid usually had a low cell count and protein concentration, but some individuals had higher values. Electrolyte concentrations resembled those found in blood. High cell counts and protein concentrations found in peritoneal fluid of some healthy camelids may overlap with values found in diseased camelids, complicating interpretation of peritoneal fluid values.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA) administered IV affects hemostasis and fibrinolysis in clinically normal horses and ponies.

Animals—20 clinically normal adult horses and ponies.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected 24 hours before (baseline) and 1 and 5 hours after IV administration of a low dose (30 mg/kg) or high dose (100 mg/kg) of EACA. Platelet count, fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time (PTT), D-dimer concentration, α2-antiplasmin activity, and thrombin-antithrombin complex concentration were measured. Values at 1 and 5 hours were compared with baseline values.

Results—1 hour after administration of a low dose of EACA, mean fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower than baseline concentration. Mean PTT was significantly shorter than the baseline value 5 hours after administration of a low dose of EACA. One hour after administration of 100 mg of EACA/kg, mean α2-antiplasmin activity was significantly higher than baseline activity. Mean fibrinogen concentration was significantly lower than baseline concentration 1 and 5 hours after administration of a high dose of EACA. Mean PTT was significantly shorter than the baseline value 5 hours after administration of a high dose of EACA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of 30 and 100mg of EACA/kg to clinically normal horses significantly modified some laboratory measures of hemostasis, consistent with its known antifibrinolytic effects. Although enhanced clot maintenance and diminished bleeding were not directly assessed, the clinical use of EACA may benefit some patients. ( Am J Vet Res 2005;66:313–318)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of exogenous insulin on clearance of exogenous glucose in alpacas.

Animals—7 adult castrated male alpacas.

Procedure—Prior to each of 2 trials, food was withheld for 8 hours. Glucose (0.5 g/kg of body weight) was then administered by rapid IV infusion. During 1 of the trials, regular insulin (0.2 U/kg, IV) was also administered 15 minutes later. Blood was collected immediately before (0 minutes) and 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after glucose administration. Plasma concentrations of glucose and lactate were determined, and glucose fractional turnover rate and plasma half-life were calculated.

Results—Insulin treatment caused a significant increase in fractional turnover rate of glucose and plasma lactate concentration. Plasma glucose concentrations were less in insulin-treated alpacas from 30 minutes after glucose administration (15 minutes after insulin administration) until the conclusion of each trial, compared with nontreated alpacas. In addition, plasma glucose concentration in insulin-treated alpacas returned to baseline values 1 hour sooner than in the nontreated group.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Glucose uptake in alpacas improves after insulin treatment, suggesting that administration of exogenous insulin will increase the therapeutic and decrease the pathologic effects of exogenous glucose administered to hypoglycemic alpacas. However, alpacas and other New World camelids should be monitored carefully during treatment with glucose or insulin, because these species appear to be partially insulin resistant. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1544–1547)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research