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Abstract

Summary—During 2003, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the CDC. This represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. More than 91% (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 7.4% in domestic species in 2002). The relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons (36.7%), 2,112 skunks (29.4%), 1,212 bats (16.9%), 456 foxes (6.4%), 321 cats (4.5%), 117 dogs (1.6%), and 98 cattle (1.4%). Compared with cases reported in 2002, the number of cases reported in 2003 decreased among all reporting groups with the exception of cats, dogs, equids, and swine. Ten of the 19 states with enzootic rabies in raccoons, the District of Columbia, and New York City reported decreases in the numbers of rabid raccoons during 2003. Tennessee reported 4 cases of indigenous rabies in raccoons during 2003, becoming the 20th state where rabies in raccoons is known to be enzootic.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2003 decreased by 13.2% from those reported in 2002. Texas again reported the greatest number (n = 620) of rabid skunks during 2003, as well as the greatest overall state total of rabies cases (909). As in 2002, Texas did not report any cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote variant of the rabies virus, but did report 61 cases associated with the gray fox variant of the virus (compared with 65 cases in 2002). The 1,212 cases of rabies reported in bats during 2003 represented a decline of nearly 12% from the previous year's record high of 1,373 cases for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in foxes and raccoons declined 10.2% and 8.9%, respectively, during 2003. Rabies among sheep and goats decreased from 15 cases in 2002 to 12 cases in 2003, whereas cases reported in cats, dogs, and equids increased 7.4%, 18.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses and dogs decreased 26.9% and 35.7%, respectively, from those reported in 2002.

Three cases of rabies in human beings were reported in California, Virginia, and Puerto Rico during 2003. The Virginia case was the first reported occurrence of rabies in a human being infected with the raccoon rabies virus variant; however, the exposure history was unknown. The California and Puerto Rico cases were the result of infections with bat and dog/mongoose rabies virus variants, respectively, and each patient had a history of a bite.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

During 2007, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the CDC, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. Approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 cattle (0.8%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2006, cases in 2007 increased among dogs, bats, foxes, and skunks while decreases were reported among cattle, cats, and skunks. Increases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2007 were reported by 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic, and reported cases increased by 1.7% overall, compared with 2006.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2007 decreased by 1.1% from the number reported in 2006. Texas reported the greatest number (n = 362) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of animal rabies cases (969). No cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant were reported. The United States remains free of dog-to-dog transmission of canine rabies virus variants. The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes increased 14.5%, compared with 2006. Increases in the number of reported rabid foxes were attributable to greater numbers of foxes reported with the Arctic fox rabies virus variant in Alaska, the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant in Texas, and the raccoon rabies virus variant in Virginia. The 1,973 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 16.6% increase over numbers reported in 2006. Cases of rabies in dogs and in sheep and goats increased 17.7% and 18.2%, respectively, whereas cases reported in cattle, cats, and horses and mules decreased 30.5%, 13.8%, and 20.8%, respectively. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses decreased 51.5%, and rabies in domestic animals, presumably attributable to spillover infection from mongooses, increased 25%.

One human rabies case was reported from Minnesota during 2007. Although typing of the rabies virus variant in this case was not possible, an investigation of this case indicated a bat as the most likely source of exposure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2005, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,417 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the CDC, representing a 6.2% decrease from the 6,836 cases in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings reported in 2004. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,534 raccoons (39.5%), 1,478 skunks (23%), 1,408 bats (21.9%), 376 foxes (5.9%), 269 cats (4.2%), 93 cattle (1.5%), and 76 dogs (1.2%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2004, cases in 2005 decreased among all groups, except bats, horses, and other wild animals. Decreases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2005 were reported by 10 of the 20 eastern states in which raccoon rabies was enzootic and decreased overall by 1.2%, compared with 2004.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2005 decreased 20.4% from the number reported in 2004. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n = 392) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of rabies cases (741). Texas reported no cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant and only 8 cases associated with the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant (compared with 22 cases in 2004). The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes decreased 3.3%, compared with those reported in 2004. The 1,408 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 3.5% increase over numbers reported in 2005. Cases of rabies in cats, dogs, cattle, and sheep and goats decreased 4.3%, 19.2%, 19.1%, and 10%, respectively, whereas cases reported in horses and mules increased 9.3%. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses increased 29.8%, and rabies in domestic animals decreased 37.5%.

One case of human rabies was reported from Mississippi during 2005. This case was submitted by the state to the CDC's unexplained deaths project and diagnosed as rabies retrospectively.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2006, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the CDC, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1.1%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2005, cases in 2006 increased among all groups except cattle. Increases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2006 were reported by 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic, and reported cases increased by 3.2% overall, compared with 2005.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2006 increased by 6.1% from the number reported in 2005. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n = 351) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of animal rabies cases (889). No cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant were reported. The last identified case of this canine rabies virus variant was identified in March 2004, along the US/Mexi-co border. With 2006 marking the second year of no apparent transmission of the dog/coyote variant, these findings from surveillance data support the contention that the canine rabies virus variant is no longer in circulation in the United States. Total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes increased 13.6%, compared with 2005. Increases in the number of reported rabid foxes were attributable to greater numbers of foxes reported with the Arctic fox rabies virus variant in Alaska, the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant in Texas, and the raccoon rabies virus variant in Virginia. The 1,692 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 14.5% increase, compared with numbers reported in 2005, making bats the second most reported rabid animal behind raccoons. Cases of rabies in cats, dogs, horses and mules, and sheep and goats increased 18.2%, 3.9%, 12.8%, and 22.2%, respectively, whereas cases reported in cattle decreased 11.8%. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses increased 9.2%, and rabies in domestic animals, presumably attributable to spillover infection from mongooses, increased 20%.

Three cases of human rabies were reported from Texas, Indiana, and California during 2006. The cases in Indiana and Texas were attributed to bat rabies virus variants, whereas the case in California was attributed to an exposure to a dog in the Philippines.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2011, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,031 rabid animals and 6 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 1.9% decrease from the 6,153 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,981 raccoons (32.8%), 1,627 skunks (27.0%), 1,380 bats (22.9%), 427 foxes (7.1%), 303 cats (5.0%), 65 cattle (1.1%), and 70 dogs (1.2%). Compared with 2010, there was a substantial increase in the number of rabid skunks reported. Six cases of rabies involving humans were reported from California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina. Three cases reported from Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York were determined to be a result of canine rabies virus variants acquired outside the United States.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2008, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,841 cases of rabies in animals and 2 cases in humans to the CDC, representing a 3.1% decrease from the 7,060 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2007. Approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,389 (34.9%) raccoons, 1,806 (26.4%) bats, 1,589 (23.2%) skunks, 454 (6.6%) foxes, 294 (4.3%) cats, 75 (1.1%) dogs, and 59 (0.9%) cattle. Compared with numbers of cases reported in 2007, numbers of cases reported in 2008 increased among cats, cattle, and skunks and decreased among dogs, raccoons, bats, and foxes. Numbers of rabid raccoons reported during 2008 decreased in 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic; overall number of rabid raccoons reported decreased by 8.6% during 2008, compared with 2007.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases involving skunks increased by 7.7% during 2008, compared with the number reported in 2007; this was the first increase in the number of reported rabid skunks since 2006. The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes decreased 1.7% in 2008, compared with 2007. The 1,806 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 6.7% decrease, compared with the number reported in 2007. One case of rabies in a dog imported from Iraq was reported at a quarantine station in New Jersey during 2008. Follow-up of potentially exposed animals in the same shipment did not reveal any secondary transmission. The United States remained free from dog-to-dog transmission of canine rabies virus variants. Total number of rabid dogs reported decreased 19.4% in 2008, compared with 2007.

Two human rabies cases were reported from California and Missouri during 2008. The California case involved a recent immigrant from Mexico and was attributed to a newly identified rabies virus variant most likely associated with Mexican free-tailed bats. The case in Missouri was attributed to a rabies virus variant associated with eastern pipistrelle and silver-haired bats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Summary—During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1 %), and 69 dogs (1.1 %). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1 % increase in the number of reported rabid cats.

Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate epidemiologic features of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States during 1999 and assess the role of bat-associated variants.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population—Rabies viruses from 78 dogs and 230 cats.

Procedure—Brain specimens from rabid dogs and cats were submitted for typing of rabies virus. Historical information, including ownership and vaccination status, was obtained for each animal. Specimens were typed by use of indirect fluorescent antibody assay or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis.

Results—Nearly all animals were infected with the predicted terrestrial rabies virus variant associated with the geographic location of the submission. A batassociated variant of rabies virus was found in a single cat from Maryland. More than half (53%) of submitted animals were classified as owned animals, and most had no known history of vaccination. One vaccination failure was reported in a dog that did not receive a booster dose of rabies vaccine after exposure to a possibly rabid animal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bat-associated rabies virus variants were not a common cause of rabies in dogs and cats during 1999. Vaccine failures were uncommon during the study period. Because most rabid dogs and cats were unvaccinated and were owned animals rather than strays, educational campaigns targeting owners may be useful. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1939–1942)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Genetic recombination between field strains and vaccine strains of pseudorabies virus (prv) has been suggested as a scenario that might arise from use of deletion-mutant modified-live vaccine strains, particularly those strains attenuated by deletions within the thymidine kinase (tk -) gene locus. To address this hypothesis experimentally, it is necessary to screen large numbers of prv isolates for their tk genotype. Techniques to detect the native tk genotype are routinely used in molecular virology laboratories, but are time-consuming. We adapted the polymerase chain reaction to define the genotypic status of prv isolates with regard to the presence or absence of deletions in the tk gene locus. Used in tandem with the existing glycoprotein-specific elisa that discriminate between prv-vaccinated and field strain-infected swine populations, the described technique may help to clarify whether vaccine-derived recombinants are generated under natural conditions and after normal vaccine usage.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research