Objective—To evaluate the use of laparoscopic-assistedjejunostomy feeding tube (J-tube) placement in healthy dogs under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia and compare cardiopulmonary responses during this epidural anesthetic protocol with cardiopulmonary responses during general anesthesia for laparoscopic-assisted or open surgical J-tube placement.
Animals—15 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive open surgical J-tube placement under general anesthesia (n = 5dogs; group 1), laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under general anesthesia (5; group 2), or laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia (5; group 3). Cardiopulmonary responses were measured at baseline (time 0), every 5 minutes during the procedure (times 5 to 30 minutes), and after the procedure (after desufflation [groups 2 and 3] or at the start of abdominal closure [group 1]). Stroke volume, cardiac index, and O2 delivery were calculated.
Results—All group 3 dogs tolerated laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement under sedation with epidural and local anesthesia. Comparison of cardiovascular parameters revealed a significantly higher cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, and O2 delivery in group 3 dogs, compared with group 1 and 2 dogs. Minimal differences in hemodynamic parameters were foundbetween groups undergoing laparoscopic-assistedandopen surgical J-tube placement under general anesthesia (ie, groups 1 and 2); these differences were not considered to be clinically important in healthy research dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sedation with epidural and local anesthesia provided satisfactory conditions for laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement in healthy dogs; this anesthetic protocol caused less cardiopulmonary depression than general anesthesia and may represent a better choice for J-tube placement in critically ill patients.
Objectives—To evaluate a population of chondrodystrophic
dogs treated for Hansen type I intervertebral
disk (IVD) disease by surgical decompression with or
without prophylactic fenestration and determine the
rate and location of surgically confirmed recurrence of
intervertebral disk extrusion.
Study Design—Retrospective study.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent
spinal decompression between 1995 and 1999
Results—13 (4.9%) dogs were euthanatized or died
prior to discharge. Fenestration was performed in 252
dogs, including 37 (14.7%) at the site of decompression
only, 48 (19%) at 3 to 4 disk spaces, and 167
(66%) at 5 to 7 disk spaces. There were 12 instances
of recurrent disk extrusion confirmed by removal of
disk at a second surgery 3.5 to 33 months after the
first surgery. Recurrence was always at a new disk
space, and rates did not significantly differ between
dogs that underwent single or multiple fenestrations.
Two recurrences were at a previously fenestrated disk
space. Seven recurrences were at a site immediately
adjacent to a fenestrated disk space, and 5 recurrences
were at L4-5.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prophylactic
fenestration is generally successful in preventing
future disk extrusions at fenestrated disk spaces.
Prospective evaluation is still required to determine
whether fenestration decreases the overall rate of
recurrence. Prophylactic fenestration could promote
disk extrusion at adjacent, nonfenestrated disk
spaces. This could have a substantial clinical impact if
recurrence develops at L4-5. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1808–1814)
Objective—To evaluate feasibility of performing
laparoscopic-assisted placement of a jejunostomy
feeding tube (J-tube) and compare complications
associated with placement, short-term feedings, and
medium-term healing with surgically placed tubes in
Animals—15 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to
undergo open surgical or laparoscopic-assisted J-tube
placement. Required nutrients were administered by
a combination of enteric and oral feeding while monitoring
for complications. Radiographic contrast studies
documented tube direction and location, altered
motility, or evidence of stricture.
Results—Jejunostomy tubes were successfully
placed in the correct location and direction in all dogs.
In the laparoscopic group, the ileum was initially
selected in 2 dogs, 2 dogs developed moderate hemorrhage
at a portal site, and 2 J-tubes kinked during
placement but were successfully readjusted postoperatively.
All dogs tolerated postoperative feedings.
All dogs developed minor ostomy site inflammation,
and 1 dog developed bile-induced dermatitis at the
ostomy site. Despite mild, transient neutrophilia, no
significant difference was noted in WBC counts
between groups. No dog had altered gastric motility
or evidence of stricture, although the jejunopexy site
remained identifiable in several dogs at 30 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Requirements
for successful J-tube placement were met by use of a
laparoscopic-assisted technique, and postoperative
complications were mild and comparable to those
seen with surgical placement. Laparoscopic-assisted
J-tube placement compares favorably to surgical
placement in healthy dogs and should be considered
as an option for dogs requiring enterostomy feeding
but not requiring a celiotomy for other reasons. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:65–71)
Objective—To determine whether the ventrodorsal myelographic view can be used to accurately predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) and to describe paradoxical contrast obstruction (PCO).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—104 dogs with Hansen type I IVDE.
Procedures—Ventrodorsal myelographic views were reviewed, and contrast patterns were categorized according to 8 predetermined patterns. Agreement among observers was compared, and the predicted location of extruded disk material was compared with surgical findings.
Results—Agreement regarding myelographic pattern and location of extruded disk material was moderate (κ = 0.74 and 0.80, respectively) among the 4 observers. Ninety-three (89%) dogs had myelographic evidence of lateralized extrusion, and in 83 of the 93 (89%), predicted location of extruded disk material matched the surgically confirmed location. In 33 of the 40 (83%) dogs with bilateral contrast column gaps of unequal length, disk material was found to be located on the side with the shorter, rather than the longer, contrast gap, a phenomenon described as PCO.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the ventrodorsal myelographic view could be used to predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDE more often than previously reported. The PCO phenomenon may be useful in determining the side of lateralization when contrast material does not outline the extruded disk material.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of silver-coated versus standard silicone urinary catheters on the incidence of catheter-associated bacteriuria (CAB) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a silver-coated or non–silver-coated (control) silicone Foley catheter. Urine samples for cytologic examination and bacterial culture were collected at the time of catheter insertion and daily until catheters were removed (≥ 24 hours to 7 days later). Results were compared between groups.
RESULTS No significant differences were identified between catheter groups in the incidence of CAB or CAUTI. Although the median time to development of cytologically detected bacteriuria, culture-detected bacteriuria, and CAUTI did not differ significantly between groups, median time to CAB development (either method) was significantly longer for dogs that received a control catheter rather than a silver-coated catheter. For both types of catheters combined, older age was a significant predictor of culture-detected bacteriuria, and longer duration of catheterization was a significant predictor of culture-detected bacteriuria and overall CAB.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Silver-coated urinary catheters provided no clinical benefit over standard urinary catheters for the dogs of this study and were associated with earlier development of CAB but not CAUTI. A larger prospective study is required to definitively determine whether the use of silver-coated urinary catheters should or should not be considered to reduce the risk of CAB or CAUTI in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare perioperative characteristics of dogs with cystic calculi treated via open versus laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy (LAC).
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 89 client-owned dogs that underwent open cystotomy (n = 39) or LAC (50).
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent cystotomy between 2011 and 2015 were reviewed. History, signalment, surgery date, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of surgical treatment, duration of surgery, perioperative complications, treatment costs, and duration of hospitalization were recorded.
RESULTS 5 of 50 (10%) dogs required conversion from LAC to open cystotomy (OC). There was no significant difference between the LAC (1/50) and OC (2/39) groups with regard to percentage of patients with incomplete removal of calculi. Duration of surgery was not significantly different between the LAC (median, 80 min; range, 35 to 145 min) and OC (median, 70 min; range, 45 to 120 min) groups. Postoperative duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter for dogs that underwent LAC (median, 24 hours; range, 12 to 48 hours) versus OC (median, 26 hours; range, 12 to 63 hours). Surgical and total procedural costs were significantly higher for patients undergoing LAC.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that LAC may be an acceptable minimally invasive technique for treatment of cystic calculi in dogs. Surgery times were similar to those for dogs undergoing OC; however, surgical and total procedural costs were higher. Further investigation is suggested to determine which patients may benefit from LAC versus traditional OC.
Objective—To determine whether adenosine pretreatment
attenuates free radical production and muscle
damage in ischemic and reperfused canine skeletal
Animals—9 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and both gracilis
muscles were isolated, leaving only the major
vascular pedicle intact. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution
was injected into the artery supplying the control flap,
whereas adenosine (10 mg) was injected into the contralateral
artery. Ischemia was induced in both flaps
for 4 hours. α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone was administered
IV to each dog 1 hour prior to reperfusion.
Following 15 minutes of reperfusion, effluent blood
samples from each muscle flap were obtained and
processed for spin-trapping electron paramagnetic
resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Muscle biopsy specimens
were obtained for histologic evaluation, and
dogs were euthanatized.
Results—EPR spectra of strong intensity were
obtained from analysis of 5 of 9 paired samples.
Signals identified were characteristic of oxygen- and
carbon-centered free radical adducts. Signal intensity
of spectra from adenosine-treated flaps was significantly
less than that of control flaps; mean signal
attenuation was 36% in the adenosine-treated group.
Histologic evaluation of muscle flaps did not reveal
significant differences between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of
canine muscle flaps with adenosine prior to a period
of ischemia reduced but did not completely attenuate
free radical production after reperfusion. However,
adenosine pretreatment did not affect histologic
abnormalities. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:175–180)
Objective—To prospectively assess whether multiple-site disk fenestration decreases the incidence of recurrent thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH), compared with single-site disk fenestration, in small-breed dogs treated for IVDH.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—207 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Dogs undergoing decompressive surgery of the spinal cord because of thoracolumbar IVDH between 2001 and 2004 were randomly assigned to receive single-site disk fenestration at the level of surgical decompression (n = 103) or multiple-site disk fenestration of all disks from T11 through L4 (104). Follow-up consisted of complete reevaluation of patients, telephone surveys, and further surgery if signs indicative of recurrence occurred.
Results—189 dogs were available for long-term follow-up: 95 dogs in the single-site disk fenestration group and 94 in the multiple-site disk fenestration group. Twenty-four dogs developed 28 confirmed episodes of recurrent thoracolumbar IVDH. The rate for first-time recurrence was 12.7% (24/189). First-time recurrence rates for single-and multiple-site disk fenestration groups were 17.89% (17/95) and 7.45% (7/94), respectively. Dogs undergoing single-site disk fenestration were significantly more likely to have recurrent thoracolumbar IVDH than were dogs undergoing multiple-site disk fenestration. Disk mineralization at the time of first surgery was associated with recurrence, and 87.5% (21/24) of recurrences occurred at a disk space adjacent to or 1 disk away from the initial lesion. Regardless of disk fenestration group, 22 of 24 (91.7%) recurrences occurred at a nonfenestrated disk space.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple-site disk fenestration decreased the rate of recurrent IVDH in small-breed dogs, compared with the use of single-site disk fenestration.
Objective—To compare the efficacy of canine vaginal impedometry in identifying the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) peak to that of currently used methods (serum progesterone concentration measurement, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginoscopy).
Animals—12 sexually intact female dogs.
Procedures—12 mature postpubertal Beagle (n = 3), Beagle-cross (2), and hound-cross (7) bitches ranging from 7.5 to 27.5 kg (16.5 to 60.6 lb) were enrolled in the study. After the onset of spontaneous proestrus, determined on the basis of appearance of serosanguineous vaginal discharge, serum progesterone assays, vaginoscopy, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginal impedometry were performed daily until approximately 4 days after peak LH concentration (day 0) as measured by radioimmunoassay. Vaginal impedometry was compared against serum progesterone concentration measurement, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and vaginoscopy as a method for accurately identifying the LH peak and therefore the optimal breeding time. Ten of 12 bitches were bred with subsequent assessment of embryos.
Results—Vaginal impedometry accurately predicted the preovulatory LH peak in 5 of 11 bitches. One bitch was removed from the study because data were not collected. Of the remaining 11 bitches, 6 had their LH peak on the day serum progesterone concentration first exceeded 2 ng/mL. Crenulation scores reached 1 (mean, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.7) on day 0 as expected; however, these scores were not significantly different from those on days −1 or 1. Vaginal epithelial cell populations did not change noticeably on day 0. Nine of the 10 bitches that were bred produced viable embryos.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that daily use of vaginal impedometry in bitches was unreliable as a method for monitoring periovulatory events. All techniques evaluated (ie vaginal impedometry, serum progesterone concentration assays, vaginoscopy and vaginal cytologic evaluation) frequently produced inaccurate results when used individually. Multiple methods should be used to identify optimal breeding time in dogs.
To compare the long-term outcomes of a ventral versus lateral surgical approach for mandibular and sublingual sialoadenectomy in dogs with a unilateral sialocele.
46 client-owned dogs.
Medical records of dogs that underwent unilateral sialoadenectomy between 1999 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed, and information was collected regarding signalment, clinical signs, historical treatment, swelling location, diagnostic imaging findings, sialoadenectomy approach, adjunctive treatments, intraoperative complications, hospitalization time, postoperative complications, recurrence, and contralateral sialocele development.
There were no significant differences in incidences of intraoperative complications, recurrence, or postoperative complications between dogs in which a lateral versus ventral approach was used. Clinically important intraoperative complications included iatrogenic tears in the oral mucosa, ligature slippage from the duct end, hemorrhage, and possible lingual nerve transection. Surgical experience was associated with the likelihood that intraoperative complications would develop. Suspected recurrence was reported in 2 of 26 (8%) dogs that underwent a lateral approach and 2 of 12 (17%) dogs that underwent a ventral approach. Hospitalization time was significantly shorter with the lateral approach than with the ventral approach. Postoperative complications had a short-term onset and occurred in 4 of 25 (16%) dogs that underwent a lateral approach and 3 of 12 (25%) dogs that underwent a ventral approach. Age and presence of a pharyngeal sialocele were associated with development of postoperative complications.
Long-term outcomes for ventral and lateral approaches to sialoadenectomy were favorable and appeared to be comparable. Further prospective study into potential associations of sialoadenectomy approach, age, and pharyngeal sialoceles on outcome is needed.