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  • Author or Editor: Bernd Driessen x
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Objective—To compare analgesic efficacy of preoperative epidural anesthesia with efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blockade in dogs undergoing hind limb orthopedic surgery.

Design—Prospective randomized blinded clinical study.

Animals—22 dogs requiring stifle joint surgery.

Procedures—Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with diazepam and propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen. Prior to surgery, a combination of 1.0% lidocaine solution with 0.25% bupivacaine solution was administered either into the lumbosacral epidural space (11 dogs) or perineurally along the femoral and sciatic nerves (11). Intraoperative nociception was assumed if heart rate or systolic blood pressure increased by > 10% from baseline, in which case fentanyl (2 μg/kg [0.9 μg/lb], IV) was administered as rescue analgesia. Following recovery from anesthesia, signs of postoperative pain were assessed every 30 minutes for 360 minutes from the time of local anesthetic administration via the modified Glasgow pain scale. Patients with scores > 5 (scale, 0 to 20) received hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) as rescue analgesia and were then withdrawn from further pain scoring.

Results—Treatment groups did not differ significantly in the number fentanyl boluses administered for intraoperative rescue analgesia. Time to administration of first postoperative rescue analgesia was comparable between groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups in baseline pain scores, nor were there significant differences at any other point during the postoperative period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks provided intraoperative antinociception and postoperative analgesia similar to epidural anesthesia in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To investigate the mechanisms underlying the improved arterial oxygenation described with flow-limited expiration (FLEX) ventilation in anesthetized horses.


5 healthy adult research horses.


Horses underwent volume-controlled ventilation for 60 minutes (VCV1), followed by 60 minutes of FLEX, and 30 minutes of VCV (VCV2). Main outcomes included the arterial partial pressure of oxygen-to-Fio 2 (PF) ratio and electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-derived functional indices at the end of each phase. The EIT data were used to create regional maps of relative lung ventilation and perfusion as well as regional maps of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios. Ventilation indices derived from EIT included the fraction of expired volume in 1 second (FEV1; %) and the time it took for the EIT signal to drop to 50% of the peak signal at end-inspiration (TClose50; seconds). Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures. P < .05 was considered significant.


The PF ratio increased significantly with FLEX compared to both VCV1 and VCV2 (P < .01). There were no differences in the relative distribution of ventilation nor perfusion between ventilation strategies. However, when ventilation and perfusion were superimposed and V/Q ratio maps were constructed, FLEX had a homogenizing effect toward values of 1.0. The FEV1 was shorter (P < .01) and the TClose50 was longer (P < .001) in all regions during FLEX compared to both VCV1 and VCV2.


Our findings suggest that FLEX ventilation in anesthetized horses enhances regional V/Q matching, likely by prolonging expiratory aeration and reducing airway closure.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research