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Objective

To describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and concurrent pituitary and adrenal tumors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

17 client-owned dogs.

Procedure

Signalment, response to treatment, and results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, endocrine testing, and histologic examinations were obtained from medical records of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and concurrent adrenal and chromophobe pituitary tumors.

Results

On the basis of results of adrenal function tests and histologic examination of tissue specimens collected during surgery and necropsy, concurrent pituitary and adrenal tumors were identified in 17 of approximately 1,500 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. Twelve were neutered females, 5 were males (3 sexually intact, 2 neutered); and median age was 12 years (range, 7 to 16 years). Hyperadrenocorticism had been diagnosed by use of low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests and ACTH stimulation tests. During high-dose dexamethasone suppression testing of 16 dogs, serum cortisol concentrations remained high in 11 dogs but decreased in 5 dogs. Plasma concentrations of endogenous ACTH were either high or within the higher limits of the reference range (12/16 dogs), within the lower limits of the reference range (2/16), or low (2/16). Adrenal lesions identified by histologic examination included unilateral cortical adenoma with contralateral hyperplasia (10/17), bilateral cortical adenomas (4/17), and unilateral carcinoma with contralateral hyperplasia (3/17). Pituitary lesions included a chromophobe microadenoma (12/17), macroadenoma (4/17), and carcinoma (1/17).

Clinical Implications

Pituitary and adrenal tumors can coexist in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, resulting in a confusing mixture of test results that may complicate diagnosis and treatment of hyperadrenocorticism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1349–1353)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Of 48 privately-owned bitches evaluated 30 to 35 days after a single, unplanned breeding, 30 (62%) dogs were determined not to be pregnant by abdominal ultrasonography and 18 dogs were confirmed to be pregnant. Each pregnant dog was hospitalized, allotted to a treatment group, and given prostaglandin F, sc, at 1 of 3 dosages: group 1, 0.1 mg/kg of body weight, every 8 hours; group 2, 0.25 mg/kg, every 12 hours; and group 3, 0.1 mg/kg, every 8 hours for 2 days and then 0.2 mg/kg every 8 hours thereafter. Plasma from each dog was assayed for progesterone concentration before treatment and daily until abortion was completed. Physical examinations and abdominal ultrasonography were performed every 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Treatment was continued until abortion was complete as determined by results of abdominal ultrasonography. Ultrasonography was performed earlier than the scheduled 48 hours if abdominal contractions, fetuses, or bloody or dark colored vaginal discharge was observed.

Dogs of 14 breeds were treated; body weight ranged from 5.4 to 37.7 kg. All dogs aborted all fetuses within 9 days of beginning treatment. Abdominal palpation was not satisfactory in confirming whether the abortion process had been completed; however, results of ultrasonography were a reliable indicator. Plasma progesterone concentrations prior to treatment were typical of the middle phase of gestation, with all concentrations > 6.0 ng/ml. The plasma progesterone concentration decreased significantly in each dog after the first 48 hours of therapy. None of the bitches aborted any fetal material until at least 24 hours after the plasma progesterone concentration was < 2.0 ng/ml. Side effects of the initial injection of prostaglandin F included panting (n = 14), excess salivation (n = 13), vomiting (n = 12), defecation (n = 10), and urination (n = 3). Side effects were not life threatening, lasted < 30 minutes in all but 2 dogs, and were less severe with each subsequent treatment.

Prostaglandin F provided a safe, reliable, effective, and practical abortifacient in pregnant bitches treated at 30 to 35 days after an unplanned breeding. The results of all 3 protocols were satisfactory.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To examine the clinical response to topical administration of clotrimazole in dogs with nasal aspergillosis, to compare effect of surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters used for administration on outcome, and to examine whether subjective scoring of computed tomographic images can predict outcome.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

60 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.

Procedure

Information including signalment, history, diagnostics, treatment method, and outcome was retrieved from medical records of dogs with nasal aspergillosis treated between 1990 and 1996 at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine or cooperating referral practices. Final outcome was determined by telephone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians. Images obtained before treatment were subjectively assessed to develop an algorithm for predicting outcome.

Results

Clotrimazole solution (1 %) was infused during a 1-hour period via catheters surgically placed in the frontal sinus and nose (27 dogs) and via nonsurgically placed catheters in the nose (18). An additional 15 dogs received 2 to 4 infusions by either route. Topical administration of clotrimazole resulted in resolution of clinical disease in 65% of dogs after 1 treatment and 87% of dogs after one or more treatments. The scoring system correctly classified dogs with unfavorable and favorable responses 71 to 78% and 79 to 93% of the time, respectively.

Clinical Implications

Topical administration of clotrimazole, using either technique, was an effective treatment for nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Use of non-invasive intranasal infusion of clotrimazole eliminated the need for surgical trephination of frontal sinuses in many dogs and was associated with fewer complications.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:501-506)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in serum of healthy bitches during various stages of the reproductive cycle and in bitches with hyperadrenocorticism and to compare the dynamics of 17OHP with those of progesterone.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—15 healthy sexually intact bitches and 28 spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism.

Procedures—11 healthy bitches were evaluated during estrus, nonpregnant diestrus, and anestrus (group 1); 4 other healthy bitches were evaluated during pregnancy and after ovariohysterectomy (group 2). Cycle stages were determined via physical examination, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and serum progesterone concentration. Bitches with hyperadrenocorticism were evaluated once at the time of diagnosis (group 3). Serum hormone concentrations were determined with immunoassays.

Results—In group 1, the serum 17OHP concentration was significantly higher in diestrus (median, 1.8 ng/mL) than in estrus (median, 1.1 ng/mL) and anestrus (median, 0.2 ng/mL) and higher in estrus than in anestrus. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations accounted for 22% (estrus) or 23% (diestrus) of the variation in serum 17OHP concentrations. In group 2, 17OHP and progesterone concentrations were significantly higher during pregnancy than after ovariohysterectomy. The serum 17OHP concentration in group 3 was significantly lower (median, 0.2 ng/mL) than in group 1 in estrus and diestrus and in group 2 during pregnancy (median, 0.7 ng/mL) but was not different from 17OHP concentrations in anestrus or after ovariohysterectomy (median, 0.2 ng/mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum 17OHP concentrations in healthy bitches increased during estrus, diestrus, and pregnancy and at those times were higher than in spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association