Procedures—Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (6 dogs/group) and were assigned to receive buprenorphine (20 μg/kg [9.09 μg/lb], IV; a low dose [20 μg/kg] via OTM administration [LOTM]; or a high dose [120 μg/kg [54.54 μg/lb] via OTM administration [HOTM]) immediately before anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane for ovariohysterectomy. Postoperative pain was assessed by use of a dynamic interactive pain scale. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia when postoperative pain exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and its metabolites. Data were analyzed with an ANOVA.
Results—Body weight, surgical duration, propofol dose, isoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Number of dogs requiring rescue analgesia did not differ significantly for the HOTM (1/6), IV (3/6), and LOTM (5/6) treatments. Similarly, mean ± SEM duration of analgesia did not differ significantly for the HOTM (20.3 ± 3.7 hours), IV (16.0 ± 3.8 hours), and LOTM (7.3 ± 3.3 hours) treatments. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was ≤ 0.60 ng/mL in 7 of 9 dogs requiring rescue analgesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Buprenorphine (HOTM) given immediately before anesthetic induction can be an alternative for postoperative pain management in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Objective—To compare efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and ketamine in combination with butorphanol, hydromorphone, or buprenorphine (with or without reversal by atipamezole) in dogs undergoing castration.
Animals—30 healthy client-owned sexually intact male dogs.
Procedures—Dogs (n = 10 dogs/group) were assigned to receive dexmedetomidine (15 μg/kg [6.82 μg/lb]) and ketamine (3 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb]) with butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]; DKBut), the same dosages of dexmedetomidine and ketamine with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]; DKH), or the same dosages of dexmedetomidine and ketamine with buprenorphine (40 μg/kg [18.18 μg/lb]; DKBup). All drugs were administered as a single IM injection for induction and maintenance of anesthesia for castration. At conclusion of the surgery, 5 dogs in each treatment group received atipamezole (150 μg/kg [68.18 μg/lb], IM), and the remainder received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM. Cardiorespiratory variables and quality of anesthesia were assessed. Supplemental isoflurane was administered to the dogs when anesthesia was considered inadequate during surgery.
Results—All drug combinations rapidly induced anesthesia. Dogs were intubated within 10 minutes after injection. Supplemental isoflurane was needed during surgery in 1, 3, and 4 dogs in the DKBup, DKBut, and DKH groups, respectively. Dogs that received atipamezole had a significantly shorter recovery time. Some dogs in each group had bradycardia and hypoxemia with hypertension.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DKBup was the most suitable injectable anesthetic combination used. Recovery was shortened by IM administration of atipamezole. There were minimal adverse effects in all groups.
OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas.
ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas.
PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mm). Five images (2 molar, 2 premolar, and mandibular incisor teeth) were selected from each protocol for evaluation by 3 veterinary radiologists. For each image, tooth root visibility and sharpness and image noise artifact were subjectively evaluated on a 3-point scoring system.
RESULTS Slice thickness significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness but did not affect image noise artifact. Acquisition mode significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness as well as image noise artifact. Tooth root visibility and sharpness did not differ significantly between the helical and sequential images when the slice thickness was 1.25 mm. Image noise artifact was greater for helical images than sequential images but did not differ by slice thickness within either acquisition mode.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for a 64-slice CT scanner, the optimal protocol for the acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas was a sequential scan with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm.
Objective—To determine whether heavy (≥ 680 kg [≥ 1,500 lb]) draft horses undergoing surgical treatment for acute signs of abdominal pain were at a greater risk for anesthetic and postoperative complications and lower postoperative survival rates than light (< 680 kg) draft horses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—72 draft horses.
Procedures—Medical records of draft horses that underwent exploratory celiotomy for signs of acute abdominal pain from October 1983 to December 2002 were reviewed. Medical records of draft horses in which a celiotomy was performed for correction of reproductive abnormalities were not included in the study.
Results—When compared with light draft horses, heavy draft horses had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and lower survival rates. Seventy-six percent of horses that recovered from anesthesia had postoperative complications. Postoperative complications associated with low survival rates included myopathy and neuropathy, ileus, diarrhea, and endotoxemia. All horses with postoperative myopathy and neuropathy died or were euthanized. The short-term survival rate for horses that recovered from anesthesia was 60%. Horses undergoing small intestinal surgery had a worse prognosis for short-term survival than those undergoing large intestinal surgery. The survival rate for horses for which long-term (> 1 year) follow-up information was available was 50%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Draft horses weighing > 680 kg that underwent surgery because of acute signs of abdominal pain had longer durations of anesthesia, more postoperative complications, and higher mortality rates than draft horses weighing < 680 kg.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores.
RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.