Objective—To determine whether staphylococcal isolates cultured from pustules and carriage sites in dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis were genotypically the same strain by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Animals—40 dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from 3 pustules and 3 carriage sites (anus, axillary skin, and nasal mucosa). Bacterial culture, morphologic identification, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase tests, speciation, and PFGE were performed.
Results—Of 246 isolates, 203 were Staphylococcus intermedius, 5 were Staphylococcus aureus, 15 were Staphylococcusspp, and 22 were coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates. No dog had an isolate with the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from another dog. Coagulase-positive isolates from multiple pustules and multiple carriage sites had the same PFGE pattern in 37 of 39 (94.9%) and 22 of 39 (56.4%) dogs, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from at least 1 pustule had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 carriage site in 34 of 36 (94.4%) dogs. Ninety-seven of 116 (83.6%) coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from pustules had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 carriage site. Sixty-nine of 91 (75.8%) coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from carriage sites had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 pustule.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Coagulasepositive staphylococcal strains were heterogeneous among dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis. In individual dogs, strains from multiple pustules were genotypically the same, and strains from pustules were genotypically the same as strains from carriage sites.
Objective—To determine the concentration of house
dust mite (HDM) allergens, Der f 1 and group 2, on
the skin and hair of dogs and whether associations
exist between the presence of Der f 1 and group 2
allergens on the skin and hair of dogs and household
and dog characteristics.
Animals—63 pet dogs from 50 homes.
Procedure—Dogs were weighed and body surface
area in square meters was determined. Skin and hair
samples were obtained by vacuuming dogs.
Collected dust was analyzed by use of standard
Results—HDM allergen was detected in 21 of 59
skin and hair samples. Presence of group 2 allergen
on skin and hair of dogs was significantly associated
with long hair, compared with short or medium length
hair. Median house dust sample concentrations of
Der f 1 and group 2 allergens were high in homes
with dogs that had skin and hair samples that were
positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens. Dogs with
skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1
and group 2 allergens resided in homes with a high
number of house dust samples that were positive for
Der f 1, group 2, or both allergens and in homes with
a mean house dust sample allergen concentration of
≥ 2 µg/g of dust.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations
exist between environmental HDM allergen concentrations
and HDM allergens on the skin and hair samples
of dogs. Environmental allergen load is a major
factor in accumulation of allergens on the skin and
hair of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:143–149)
Objective—To determine whether coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates that are genotypically the same strain obtained from pustules and carriage sites of individual dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis have the same antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype.
Animals—40 dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from 3 pustules and 3 carriage sites (ie, anus, nonlesional axillary skin, and nasal mucosa) for bacterial culture, morphologic identification, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, speciation, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results—223 isolates from pustules and carriage sites were included. Seventeen susceptibility phenotypes were found among isolates. One hundred twenty-eight (100%) isolates from pustules and 95 (100%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to cephalothin; 128 (100%) isolates from pustules and 94 (98.9%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; 114 (89.1%) isolates from pustules and 82 (86.3%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to erythromycin and lincomycin hydrochloride; and 103 (80.5%) isolates from pustules and 70 (73.7%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In 37 of 39 (94.9%) dogs, isolates with the same PFGE pattern from multiple pustules had the same susceptibility phenotype. In 21 of 33 (63.6%) dogs, isolates from multiple carriage sites with the same PFGE pattern had the same susceptibility phenotype.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis, most coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from pustules that are genotypically the same strain will have the same susceptibility phenotype and treatment may be based on empiric antimicrobial selection or susceptibility testing of 1 lesional isolate.
Objective—To compare a radioallergosorbent test
and 2 ELISA with intradermal testing for the determination
of environmental allergen hypersensitivity in
horses with and without atopic diseases.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—10 horses with recurrent urticaria, 7 with
atopic dermatitis, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, and 22 without atopy.
Procedure—History, physical examination, hemogram,
serum biochemical analyses, bronchoalveolar
lavage, and an intradermal test (used as the criterion
standard) with a regional panel of 73 allergens were
performed in all horses. Serum was analyzed by use
of the 3 in vitro assays of allergen-specific IgE.
Results—An ELISA based on the α chain of the highaffinity
IgE receptor, the Fc∈ receptor immunoglobin ∈
chain (Fc∈RIα) for IgE, had the overall highest kappa
statistic (0.238), positive predictive value (49%), and
negative predictive value (78%). Overall agreement
between the Fc∈RIα-based ELISA and the intradermal
test was fair. The highest kappa statistic was obtained
by the Fc∈RIα-based ELISA in horses with atopic dermatitis
(0.330). Kappa statistics for the radioallergosorbent
test and a polyclonal antibody-based ELISA
agreed slightly with that of the intradermal test at best.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—None of the 3
serum allergy tests reliably detected allergen hypersensitivity,
compared with the intradermal test. The
Fc∈RIα-based ELISA performed significantly better
overall than the other 2 tests. Low sensitivity of all 3
assays indicates the need for continued study to elucidate
a more sensitive test for the determination of
potentially pathogenic allergens in horses. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;218:1314–1322)
Objective—To compare responses to a variety of
intradermally injected allergens among healthy horses
and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD), recurrent urticaria (RU), and atopic dermatitis-insect hypersensitivity (allergic dermatitis
Procedure—Results of intradermal testing for horses
with COPD, RU, or AD were compared with results
for healthy horses.
Results—Compared with healthy horses, horses with
COPD, RU, and AD were significantly more likely to
have positive (≥ 3+) reactions to intradermal allergens
(molds, weeds, trees, grasses-crops, and insects) 30
minutes (immediate reaction), 4 hours (late-phase
reactions), and 24 hours (delayed-phase reactions)
after exposure. In addition, diseased horses reacted
to a significantly higher number of allergens in each
allergen group than did healthy horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reactions to
individual allergens should not be used to determine
that horses have hypersensitivity. Overall patterns of
reactivity to intradermal allergens may be helpful in
management when used in conjunction with a compatible
history and evidence of potential exposure to
allergens in horses with conditions associated with
hypersensitivity to environmental allergens. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;62:1115–1121)