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Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of the contralateral radiographic infrapatellar fat pad sign and contralateral radiographic degenerative sign (degenerative changes) and evaluate both signs as risk factors for subsequent contralateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture in dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—96 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and 22 dogs with bilateral CrCL rupture.

Procedures—Dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture were classified as having normal (n = 84) or abnormal (12) contralateral stifle joints on the basis of joint palpation. Associations between potential predictive variables and rates of subsequent contralateral CrCL rupture were evaluated.

Results—Of the 84 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture in which the contralateral stifle joint was palpably normal, 29 (34.5%) had a contralateral fat pad sign and 31 (36.9%) had a degenerative sign. All dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture in which the contralateral stifle joint was palpably abnormal had a contralateral fat pad sign and degenerative sign. The contralateral fat pad sign was the most important risk factor for subsequent rupture of the contralateral CrCL. For dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and palpably normal contralateral stifle joint with and without a contralateral fat pad sign, median time to subsequent rupture was 421 and 1,688 days, respectively, and the 3-year probability of subsequent rupture was 85.3% and 24.9%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bilateral stifle joint radiography should be performed for all dogs with CrCL rupture. Bilateral stifle joint arthroscopy should be considered for dogs with a contralateral fat pad sign.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether use of electrostimuluated acupuncture (ESA) would result in significant improvements in ground reaction forces and lameness scores in dogs with chronic elbow joint osteoarthritis secondary to elbow joint dysplasia.

Design—Randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial.

Animals—9 dogs with chronic forelimb lameness and radiographic evidence of elbow joint osteoarthritis.

Procedures—All dogs had a 3-week control acclimation period during which gait analysis was performed weekly. Dogs then received ESA once weekly for 3 weeks followed by a sham treatment once weekly for 3 weeks or received the sham treatment followed by ESA. Gait analysis was repeated prior to each treatment, and owners were asked to provide pain scores by use of a visual analog scale method.

Results—Treatment (control, acupuncture, or sham) did not have a significant effect on ground reaction forces for any limb. Owners of 8 of the 9 dogs were able to correctly guess the time period when ESA was delivered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ESA did not have any significant effects on severity of lameness, as determined by measurement of ground reaction forces, or severity of pain, as determined by visual analog scale pain scores, in dogs with chronic elbow joint osteoarthritis secondary to elbow joint dysplasia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the torsional mechanical properties of 2 external skeletal fixators (ESFs) placed with 2 intramedullary pin (IP) and transfixation pin (TP) size combinations in a model of raptor tibiotarsal bone fracture.

SAMPLE

24 ESF-synthetic tibiotarsal bone model (polyoxymethylene) constructs.

PROCEDURES

Synthetic bone models were fabricated with an 8-mm (simulated fracture) gap. Four types of ESF-synthetic bone model constructs (6/group) were tested: a FESSA with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs, a FESSA with a 2.0-mm IP and 1.1-mm TPs, an acrylic connecting bar with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs, and an acrylic connecting bar with a 2.0-mm IP and 1.1-mm TPs. Models were rotated in torsion (5°/s) to failure or the machine angle limit (80°). Mechanical variables at yield and at failure were determined from load deformation curves. Effects of overall construct type, connecting bar type, and IP and TP size combination on mechanical properties were assessed with mixed-model ANOVAs.

RESULTS

Both FESSA constructs had significantly greater median stiffness and median torque at yield than both acrylic bar constructs; FESSA constructs with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs had greatest stiffness of all tested constructs and lowest gap strain at yield. No FESSA constructs failed during testing; 7 of 12 acrylic bar constructs failed by fracture of the connecting bar at the interface with a TP.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although acrylic bar ESFs have been successfully used in avian patients, the FESSA constructs in this study were mechanically superior to acrylic bar constructs, with greatest benefit resulting from use with the larger TP configuration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study is to compare drilling variables and torsional mechanical properties of rabbit femora after bicortical drilling with a 1.5-mm standard surgical drill bit, acrylic drill bit, and K-wire.

SAMPLES

24 pairs of rabbit femora.

METHODS

After drilling under controlled axial displacement rate, each bone was biaxially loaded in compression followed by rapid external torsion to failure. Maximum axial thrust force, maximum drill torque, integral of force and displacement, change in temperature, maximum power spectral density of the torque signal, torque vibration, and torque and angle at the yield and failure points were collected. Pre- and postyield stiffness, yield and failure energies, and postyield energy were calculated.

RESULTS

The work required to drill through the cis- and transcortices (integral of force and displacement) was greater for the K-wire, followed by the acrylic and then standard drill bits, respectively. The K-wire demonstrated higher maximum torque than the drill bits at the ciscortex, and the force of drilling was significantly greater. The vibration data was greater with the acrylic and standard drill bits than the K-wire. There was no difference in torsional strength between drilling types.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Mechanical differences exist between different drill bits and K-wire and demonstrate that the K-wire is overall more damaging than the surgical drill bit.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine whether dogs with well-functioning orthopedic metal implants can develop metal reactivity.

SAMPLE

Client-owned dogs that had tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or total hip replacement (THR) implants for 12 months or more and control dogs with no implants.

PROCEDURES

Lymphocyte transformation testing was performed by exposing peripheral blood lymphocytes to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), or a combination of these metals. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed with flow cytometry. Lymphocyte stimulation indexes (SIs) were calculated. A SI > 2 was considered reactive. Median SIs of dogs in response to metal exposure were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Samples from 10 dogs with TPLO, 12 dogs with THR, and 7 control dogs were analyzed. Six dogs out of 22 with metal implants had a reactive SI to 1 or more metals, while 2 of 7 control dogs had a SI > 2 when exposed to nickel only. When all metals were considered, no differences in metal reactivity were found between TPLO, THR, and control groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Metal reactivity is present in dogs and can be identified using lymphocyte transformation testing. Reactivity to Ni is present in dogs with and without metal implants. Reactivity to Co and Cr occurs in some dogs with metal implants.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare osteoarthritis scores assigned through radiographic evaluation of 18 anatomic regions in the elbow joint with scores assigned through evaluation of 3-D maximum intensity projection (MIP), 3-D surface rendering (TSR), and multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) CT images, and to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement of radiographic and CT scoring.

SAMPLE

Radiographic and CT images of 39 elbow joints in 20 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Images were anonymized and graded independently by 5 observers. One observer graded 12 elbow joints 3 times. Intraobserver consistency and repeatability, interobserver agreement, consistency among methods, and bias between methods were calculated.

RESULTS

The most severe changes were observed at the proximal aspect of the anconeal process, and the medial and cranial aspects of the medial coronoid process. Intraobserver consistency was moderate or better for 11/16 regions with MIP images, 11/16 regions with TSR images, 17/18 regions with MPR images, and 14/18 regions with radiographic images. Interobserver agreement was moderate or better for 5/16 regions with MIP images, 9/16 regions with TSR images, 12/18 regions with MPR images, and 6/18 regions with radiographic images. Mean scores from CT-based methods were higher than mean radiographic scores.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Assessments of osteoarthritis severity in the elbow joints of dogs obtained by examining radiographic images were generally consistent with assessments obtained by examining CT scans. MPR scores were more consistent and more comparable to radiographic scores than were MIP or TSR scores.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate radiation exposure of dogs and cats undergoing procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy and for operators performing those procedures.

SAMPLE

360 fluoroscopic procedures performed at 2 academic institutions between 2012 and 2015.

PROCEDURES

Fluoroscopic procedures were classified as vascular, urinary, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic. Fluoroscopy operators were classified as interventional radiology-trained clinicians, orthopedic surgeons, soft tissue surgeons, internists, and cardiologists. Total radiation exposure in milligrays and total fluoroscopy time in minutes were obtained from dose reports for 4 C-arm units. Kruskal-Wallis equality of populations rank tests and Dunn pairwise comparisons were used to compare differences in time and exposure among procedures and operators.

RESULTS

Fluoroscopy time (median, 35.80 minutes; range, 0.60 to 84.70 minutes) was significantly greater and radiation exposure (median, 137.00 mGy; range, 3.00 to 617.51 mGy) was significantly higher for vascular procedures than for other procedures. Median total radiation exposure was significantly higher for procedures performed by interventional radiology-trained clinicians (16.10 mGy; range, 0.44 to 617.50 mGy), cardiologists (25.82 mGy; range, 0.33 to 287.45 mGy), and internists (25.24 mGy; range, 3.58 to 185.79 mGy).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Vascular fluoroscopic procedures were associated with significantly longer fluoroscopy time and higher radiation exposure than were other evaluated fluoroscopic procedures. Future studies should focus on quantitative radiation monitoring for patients and operators, importance of operator training, intraoperative safety measures, and protocols for postoperative monitoring of patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research