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To assess the agreement between measurements of total protein (TP) concentrations in canine serum samples between a commercially available veterinary digital refractometer (DR), an analog handheld refractometer (AR), and a laboratory-based chemistry analyzer (LAB). An additional objective was to assess the effects of various potential interferents (ie, hyperbilirubinemia, increased BUN, hyperglycemia, hemolysis, and lipemia) on DR measurements.


108 canine serum samples.


Serum samples were measured in duplicate on the DR, which reported TP concentration, assessed via optical reflectance and critical angle measurement. These serum samples were also assessed on the AR and LAB for comparison. Serum samples with grossly visible lipemia, hemolysis, and icterus were noted. Medical records were retrospectively assessed to determine concentrations of BUN, glucose, and bilirubin.


Method comparisons among the various data generated by the analyzers were completed using linear regression, Bland Altman, and calculation of intraclass coefficients. Mean bias between DRTP and LABTP in samples without potential interferents was 0.54 g/dL with 95% limits of agreement of –0.17 to 1.27 g/dL. One-third of DRTP samples without potential interferents had > 10% difference from their LABTP comparison. Interferents, particularly marked hyperglycemia, can result in inaccurate measurements on the DR.


There was a statistically significant difference between DRTP and LABTP measurements. TP measurements in samples with any potential interferent, particularly hyperglycemia, should be assessed cautiously on DR and AR.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To assess pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid (TXA) in dogs and assess antifibrinolytic properties of TXA in canine blood by use of a thromboelastography-based in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs received each of 4 TXA treatments (10 mg/kg, IV; 20 mg/kg, IV; approx 15 mg/kg, PO; and approx 20 mg/kg, PO) in a randomized crossover-design study. Blood samples were collected at baseline (time 0; immediately prior to drug administration) and predetermined time points afterward for pharmacokinetic analysis and pharmacodynamic (thromboelastography) analysis by use of an in vitro hyperfibrinolysis model.

RESULTS Maximum amplitude (MA [representing maximum clot strength]) significantly increased from baseline at all time points for all treatments. The MA was lower at 360 minutes for the 10-mg/kg IV treatment than for other treatments. Percentage of clot lysis 30 minutes after MA was detected was significantly decreased from baseline at all time points for all treatments; at 360 minutes, this value was higher for the 10-mg/kg IV treatment than for other treatments and higher for the 20-mg/kg IV treatment than for the 20-mg/kg PO treatment. Maximum plasma TXA concentrations were dose dependent. At 20 mg/kg, IV, plasma TXA concentrations briefly exceeded concentrations suggested for complete inhibition of fibrinolysis. Oral drug administration resulted in a later peak antifibrinolytic effect than did IV administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of TXA improved clot strength and decreased fibrinolysis in blood samples from healthy dogs in an in vitro hyperfibrinolysis model. Further research is needed to determine clinical effects of TXA in dogs with hyperfibrinolysis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research