A 1.5-year-old 4.38-kg (9.6-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was referred because of a 3-day history of retching, ptyalism, and inappetence. Clinical signs were refractory to medical management (ie, administration of maropitant citrate, famotidine, and crystalloid fluid at unknown dosages).
At the time of hospital admission, the cat was alert, responsive, and euhydrated with a body condition score of 5/9. The cat had a body temperature of 38.7°C (101.6°F). The heart rate (170 beats/min; reference range, 120 to 140 beats/min) and respiratory rate (60 breaths/min; reference range, 16 to 40 breaths/min) were mildly high, likely attributable to stress or
A 6-year-old 35.2-kg (77.4-lb) sexually intact male Labrador Retriever was examined because of a 2-week history of coughing, dyspnea, regurgitation, dysphagia, and lethargy. The dog had been evaluated by its primary veterinarian for regurgitation and coughing 2 weeks earlier, at which time pneumonia was suspected and treatment with orbifloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and gentamicin (unknown dosages) was initiated along with a canned-food diet. The dog's regurgitation resolved; however, abnormal respiratory signs worsened, and the dog became dyspneic and cyanotic. Results of thoracic radiography (not shown) at that point suggested a thoracic mass, and the dog was referred for further evaluation and
An 11-week-old 5.8-kg (12.8-lb) sexually intact female Golden Retriever–Poodle crossbred dog was referred for evaluation because of progressive respiratory distress of 5 hours’ duration. Before the onset of respiratory distress, the dog was examined and vaccinated by the referring veterinarian. Vaccinations included a third booster vaccination (SC) against distemper, parvovirus, adenovirus, and coronavirus; an initial vaccination (SC) against Leptospira canicola and L icterohaemorrhagiae; and a vaccination (PO) against Bordetella bronchiseptica. Within an hour after being vaccinated, the dog became ataxic, had signs of agitation, and began wheezing. The referring veterinarian administered diphenhydramine hydrochloride
A 9-week-old 5.18-kg (11.4-lb) male Border Collie was referred for evaluation of right conduction deafness and reduced hearing of the left ear, diagnosed 3 weeks earlier via brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing with click and bone stimulation. The breeder had requested BAER evaluation of the entire litter at 48 days of age because of the breed's predilection for sensorineural deafness. In this dog, BAER testing of the right ear initially revealed deafness. However, bone stimulation testing revealed normal auditory responses consistent with right ear conduction deafness. Possible causes that were considered included structural middle ear disease or a lesion
An 8-year-old 6.4-kg (14.1-lb) neutered male Papillion was referred for neurologic evaluation of a sudden worsening of cervical hyperesthesia 3 days prior. Severe cervical hyperesthesia was first noted approximately 9 months prior. The referring veterinarian suspected cervical intervertebral disk disease and offered referral, but the owners opted for medical management at that time, which included administration of prednisolonea (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 3 months) and methocarbomalb (19.5 mg/kg [8.86 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h for 9 months), cage rest, and intermittent laser therapy. Over a 3-month period, medications were given inconsistently.
An approximately 5-year-old 0.203-kg (0.45-lb) sexually intact male hognose snake (Heterodon nasicus) was presented for evaluation of multifocal dermal nodules. The snake was housed in a plastic crate with newspaper bedding and was fed every 2 weeks. The referring veterinarian had submitted a fine-needle aspirate sample of one of the nodules for cytologic examination; however, results did not indicate a definitive diagnosis, and the snake was referred for further evaluation.
On referral examination, the snake was lethargic, had increased respiratory effort, and had multiple nodules (approx 1 cm in diameter) disseminated over its entire body. Palpation revealed
OBJECTIVE To determine brain region affinity for and retention of gadolinium in dogs after administration of gadodiamide and whether formalin fixation affects quantification.
ANIMALS 14 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES 13 dogs received gadodiamide (range, 0.006 to 0.1 mmol/kg, IV); 1 control dog received a placebo. Dogs received gadodiamide 3 to 7 days (n = 8) or 9 hours (5) before euthanasia and sample collection. Brain regions were analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy. Associations between dose, time to euthanasia, and gadolinium retention quantities (before and after fixation in 5 dogs) were evaluated.
RESULTS Gadolinium retention was seen in all brain regions at all doses, except for the control dog. Exposure 3 to 7 days before euthanasia resulted in 1.7 to 162.5 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue (dose-dependent effect), with cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity. Exposure 9 hours before euthanasia resulted in 67.3 to 1,216.4 ng of gadolinium/g of brain tissue without dose dependency. Transmission electron microscopy revealed gadolinium in examined tissues. Fixation did not affect quantification in samples immersed for up to 69 days.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gadodiamide exposure resulted in gadolinium retention in the brain of healthy dogs. Cerebellum, parietal lobe, and brainstem affinity was detected with dose dependency only in dogs exposed 3 to 7 days before euthanasia. Fixation had no effect on quantification when tissues were immersed for up to 69 days. Physiologic mechanisms for gadolinium retention remained unclear. The importance of gadolinium retention requires further investigation.