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To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.


47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.


Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.


Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.


The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Sixteen horses were allotted to 4 groups of 4 horses each to evaluate the effect of tendon sheath lavage with 4 solutions (balanced electrolyte solution, 0.1% povidone-iodine, 0.5% povidone-iodine, and 0.5% chlorhexidine). The synovitis caused by 0.1% povidone-iodine lavage was not appreciably worse than that caused by balanced electrolyte solution lavage, but the 0.5% povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine lavages caused severe synovitis, and, therefore, should not be used for tendon sheath lavage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


During a 5-year period, renosplenic entrapment of the large colon was diagnosed in 57 horses referred to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center. The signalment of and clinical signs of disease in these horses were compared with such variables in 200 horses referred for other types of colic. Findings did not support a male gender predilection for this disease, as was previously reported. The case survival rate was 93% for this group of horses. Fourteen of the horses were treated nonsurgically by rolling them clockwise while they were under general anesthesia. Data supported the safety and efficacy of nonsurgical treatment.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the ability of hyaluronic acid (HA), with and without transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), to stabilize the catabolic processes associated with atrophy of articular cartilage.


20 adult, skeletally normal, hound-type dogs.


Dogs (20 to 30 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups. One group served as untreated controls. Bivalve casts were placed on the left hind limbs of the remaining 16 dogs to limit weightbearing and motion of the limb for 92 days. One group served as the cast control. Beginning on day 56, 3 groups received aseptic intra-articular injections in the left stifles of either 5 mg of HA or 5 mg of HA containing either 20 or 50 μg of TGF-β. Intra-articular injections were repeated at 4-day intervals until the end of the study. On day 92, stifles were harvested at necropsy. Medial femoral condyles were histologically processed, and the articular cartilage was stained for the presence of proteoglycans, stromelysin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and TNF receptors (p55 and p75).


Decreased metachromasia was evident in the cartilage matrix of all cast groups, with the smallest decrease in the HA-treated group. Stromelysin was immunolocalized in articular cartilage of the cast (left) limbs of cast control and both HA/TGF-β-treated groups. TNF-α was localized in articular cartilage of all cast (left) and right limbs, except those of the HA-treated group. Receptors for TNF were observed in both limbs of untreated control and cast control groups and cast limbs of HA/TGF-β-treated groups. The receptors were not localized in the right limbs of the HA with or without TGF-β-treated groups. TGF-β did not decrease stromelysin or TNF-α or receptors at the doses used.


HA may mediate a chondrostabilizing influence on articular cartilage by down-regulating TNF-α. Importantly, HA appeared to exert its inhibitory influence on TNF-α, as well as stromelysin and TNF receptors, on a systemic basis.

Clinical Relevance

Results provide insight into the mode of action of HA as a therapeutic agent for arthritis and its stabilizing influence on cartilage metabolism. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1488-1496)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research