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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 82 client-owned dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy were reviewed. History, signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging findings, and results of colonoscopy (including complications) were recorded. When available, tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy and by means of surgical biopsy were reviewed by a single board-certified pathologist. Histologic features and tumor grade (when applicable) of tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy versus surgical biopsy were compared.

RESULTS Multiple rectal masses were observed during colonoscopy in 6 of the 82 dogs, but no lesions were visualized orad to the colorectal junction. Results of histologic evaluation of surgical biopsy specimens were consistent with a diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia in 58 of 64 dogs, of which 71% were classified as benign adenoma or polyp and 29% were classified as adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma. Complications of colonoscopy occurred in 3 of 82 dogs but were considered minor. A discrepancy in diagnosis occurred in 5 of 16 dogs for which both colonoscopic and surgical biopsy samples were available for histologic review.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that multiple rectal masses are uncommon in dogs, and secondary lesions orad to the colorectal junction were not found in this study. Colonoscopy was associated with few complications, but the need for colonoscopic assessment of the entire colon in this patient population may merit reevaluation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in serum of healthy bitches during various stages of the reproductive cycle and in bitches with hyperadrenocorticism and to compare the dynamics of 17OHP with those of progesterone.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—15 healthy sexually intact bitches and 28 spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism.

Procedures—11 healthy bitches were evaluated during estrus, nonpregnant diestrus, and anestrus (group 1); 4 other healthy bitches were evaluated during pregnancy and after ovariohysterectomy (group 2). Cycle stages were determined via physical examination, vaginal cytologic evaluation, and serum progesterone concentration. Bitches with hyperadrenocorticism were evaluated once at the time of diagnosis (group 3). Serum hormone concentrations were determined with immunoassays.

Results—In group 1, the serum 17OHP concentration was significantly higher in diestrus (median, 1.8 ng/mL) than in estrus (median, 1.1 ng/mL) and anestrus (median, 0.2 ng/mL) and higher in estrus than in anestrus. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations accounted for 22% (estrus) or 23% (diestrus) of the variation in serum 17OHP concentrations. In group 2, 17OHP and progesterone concentrations were significantly higher during pregnancy than after ovariohysterectomy. The serum 17OHP concentration in group 3 was significantly lower (median, 0.2 ng/mL) than in group 1 in estrus and diestrus and in group 2 during pregnancy (median, 0.7 ng/mL) but was not different from 17OHP concentrations in anestrus or after ovariohysterectomy (median, 0.2 ng/mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum 17OHP concentrations in healthy bitches increased during estrus, diestrus, and pregnancy and at those times were higher than in spayed bitches with hyperadrenocorticism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of dietary insoluble fiber on control of glycemia in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Design—Randomized controlled crossover trial.

Animals—16 cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Cats were fed a diet high in insoluble fiber (HF) containing 12% cellulose (dry-matter basis) or a diet low in insoluble fiber (LF) for 24 weeks; they were fed the other diet for the subsequent 24 weeks. Caloric intake and insulin treatment were adjusted to maintain stable body weight and control of glycemia, respectively. Cats were allowed an adaption period of 6 weeks after initiation of a diet, after which control of glycemia was evaluated at 6-week intervals for 18 weeks. Variables assessed included serum glucose concentration measured during the preprandial state, blood glycated hemoglobin concentration, serum glucose concentration measured at 2-hour intervals for 12 hours beginning at the time of the morning insulin injection, 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration, and mean fluctuation in serum glucose concentration from the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration.

Results—Mean daily caloric intake, body weight, or daily insulin dosage did not differ significantly between cats when fed HF and LF diets. Mean preprandial serum glucose concentration, most postprandial serum glucose concentrations, and the 12-hour mean serum glucose concentration were significantly lower when cats consumed the HF diet, compared with values when cats consumed the LF diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results support feeding a commercially available diet containing approximately 12% insoluble fiber (dry-matter basis) to cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1082–1088)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether particular vaccine brands, other injectable medications, customary vaccination practices, or various host factors were associated with the formation of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats.

Design—Prospective multicenter case-control study.

Animals—Cats in the United States and Canada with soft tissue sarcomas or basal cell tumors.

Procedure—Veterinarians submitting biopsy specimens from cats with a confirmed diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma or basal cell tumor were contacted for patient medical history. Time window statistical analyses were used in conjunction with various assumptions about case definitions.

Results—No single vaccine brand or manufacturer within antigen class was found to be associated with sarcoma formation. Factors related to vaccine administration were also not associated with sarcoma development, with the possible exception of vaccine temperature prior to injection. Two injectable medications (long-acting penicillin and methyl prednisolone acetate) were administered to case cats more frequently than to control cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings do not support the hypotheses that specific brands or types of vaccine within antigen class, vaccine practices such as reuse of syringes, concomitant viral infection, history of trauma, or residence either increase or decrease the risk of vaccineassociated sarcoma formation in cats. There was evidence to suggest that certain long-acting injectable medications may also be associated with sarcoma formation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1283–1292)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate perioperative morbidity and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing esophageal surgery.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent esophageal surgery were reviewed for information on signalment, history, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, condition treated, details of surgery, intraoperative complications, and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via veterinarian and client telephone conversations. The relationship between complications and survival to hospital discharge was evaluated by means of regression analysis.

RESULTS The most common indication for surgical intervention was an esophageal foreign body in dogs (50/63 [79%]) and esophageal stricture in cats (3/9). Complications were documented in 54% (34/63) of dogs and 3 of 9 cats. The most common immediate postoperative complications were respiratory in nature (9 dogs, 1 cat). Partial esophagectomy and resection with anastomosis were significantly associated with the development of immediate postoperative complications in dogs. The most common delayed postoperative complications were persistent regurgitation (7 dogs) and esophageal stricture formation (3 dogs, 1 cat). For dogs, a mass lesion and increasing lesion size were significantly associated with the development of delayed postoperative complications. Six dogs (10%) and 1 cat died or were euthanized prior to discharge, and pneumomediastinum and leukopenia were negative prognostic factors for dogs being discharged from the hospital.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that the short-term prognosis for dogs and cats that survive surgery for treatment of esophageal lesions is favorable, with 90% of patients discharged from the hospital (57/63 dogs; 8/9 cats). However, dogs treated for more extensive esophageal lesions as well as those undergoing esophagectomy or resection and anastomosis were more likely to develop postoperative complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association