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Abstract

Objective—To compare associations between vaccine types and other injectable drugs with development of injection-site sarcomas in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—181 cats with soft tissue sarcomas (cases), 96 cats with tumors at non-vaccine regions (control group I), and 159 cats with basal cell tumors (control group II).

Procedures—Subjects were prospectively obtained from a large pathology database. Demographic, sarcoma location, basal cell tumor, and vaccine and other injectable history data were documented by use of a questionnaire and used to define case, control, and exposure status. Three control groups were included: cats with sarcomas at non-vaccine sites, cats with basal cell tumors, and a combined group of cats with sarcomas at non-vaccine sites and cats with basal cell tumors. χ2 tests, marginal homogeneity tests, and exact logistic regression were performed.

Results—In the broad interscapular region, the frequency of administration of long-acting corticosteroid injections (dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone) was significantly higher in cases than in controls. In the broad rear limb region, case cats were significantly less likely to have received recombinant vaccines than inactivated vaccines; ORs from logistic regression analyses equaled 0.1, with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 0 to 0.4 and 0 to 0.7, depending on control group and time period of exposure used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This case-control study measuring temporal and spatial exposures efficiently detected associations between administrations of various types of vaccines (recombinant vs inactivated rabies) and other injectable products (ie, long-acting corticosteroids) with sarcoma development without the need to directly measure incidence. These findings nevertheless also indicated that no vaccines were risk free. The study is informative in allowing practitioners to weigh the relative merits and risks of commonly used pharmaceutical products.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe CT findings in dogs and cats with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs and 17 cats.

Procedures—Medical records and CT images of the skull were reviewed for dogs and cats that were examined at a dentistry and oral surgery specialty practice between 2006 and 2011.

Results—Of 142 dogs and 42 cats evaluated, 41 dogs and 17 cats had CT findings consistent with a TMJ disorder. In dogs, the most common TMJ disorder was osteoarthritis; however, in most cases, there were other TMJ disorders present in addition to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was more frequently identified at the medial aspect rather than the lateral aspect of the TMJ, whereas the frequency of osteoarthritic involvement of the dorsal and ventral compartments did not differ significantly. In cats, fractures were the most common TMJ disorder, followed by osteoarthritis. Clinical signs were observed in all dogs and cats with TMJ fractures, dysplasia, ankylosis, luxation, and tumors; however, only 4 of 15 dogs and 2 of 4 cats with osteoarthritis alone had clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that TMJ disorders were frequently present in combination. Osteoarthritis was the most common TMJ disorder in dogs and the second most common TMJ disorder in cats. Computed tomography should be considered as a tool for the diagnosis of TMJ disorders in dogs and cats with suspected orofacial disorders and signs of pain. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:69–75)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical course of dogs with hemoperitoneum in the perioperative setting and to determine risk factors that may affect short-term outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—83 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—The medical records of dogs with hemoperitoneum that underwent surgery between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Data were analyzed to determine risk factors associated with perioperative outcome. The perioperative period was defined as the time from admission to the hospital for treatment of hemoperitoneum until the time of discharge or euthanasia (within the same visit).

Results—13 of 83 (16%) dogs died or were euthanized in the perioperative period. The median hospitalization time for surviving dogs was 2 days (range, 1 to 5 days). The requirement for a massive transfusion with blood products was a negative prognostic indicator for hospital discharge. The source of bleeding was isolated to the spleen in 75 of 83 (90%) dogs; a splenic source of hemorrhage was determined to be a positive predictor of survival to discharge from the hospital.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, factors associated with death and failure to be discharged from the hospital included tachycardia, a requirement for massive transfusion with blood products, and the development of respiratory disease secondary to suspected pulmonary thromboembolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The presence of disease within the spleen was positively associated with survival to discharge. Surgical intervention for treatment of hemoperitoneum, regardless of etiology, resulted in discharge from the hospital for 70 of the 83 (84%) dogs in this series.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate trends in urolith composition and urolithiasis in dogs during the past 21 years.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—25,499 uroliths and the dogs from which they were obtained.

Procedures—Database of the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched from January 1985 through December 2006. All uroliths from dogs and the accompanying submission forms were evaluated. Age, sex, breed, and urolith location were recorded.

Results—Minerals identified in uroliths included struvite, calcium oxalate (CaOx), urate, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, sulfa drug, xanthine, and newberyite. Although more struvite-containing uroliths were submitted during this period, a significant decrease in the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths submitted as a percentage of all uroliths submitted was detected. Also, a significant increase in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths submitted over time was detected. There was a significant nonlinear decrease in submission of urate-, silica-, and cystine-containing uroliths. The CaOx-, cystine-, and silica-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from male dogs; struvite- and urate-containing uroliths were obtained significantly more often from female dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An increase in the proportion of CaOx uroliths submitted over time was detected. Reasons for long-term changes in this trend were likely multifactorial and could have included alterations in diet formulations and water consumption and possibly the fact that people favor ownership of breeds more prone to developing CaOx-containing uroliths. The decrease in metabolic uroliths could have been related to better breeding practices and increased awareness of results of genetic studies.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, laboratory analysis, and necropsy findings for equids with oleander toxicosis and to identify factors associated with outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—30 equids.

Procedures—Medical records of equids with detectable concentrations of oleandrin in serum, plasma, urine, or gastrointestinal fluid samples and equids that had not received cardiac glycoside drugs but had detectable concentrations of digoxin in serum were identified via a medical records database search. Descriptive statistics were calculated for medical history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and necropsy variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify physical examination and laboratory analysis factors significantly associated with outcome.

Results—3 of 30 (10.0%) equids died before or immediately after arrival at the hospital. Of the other 27 equids, 23 (85.2%) had gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, azotemia was detected for 19 (70.4%), and a cardiac arrhythmia was ausculted for 18 (66.7%). Mortality rate for all equids was 50.0%; mortality rate for hospitalized equids was 44.4%. The most common cause of death was cardiac dysfunction. Odds of survival to discharge from the hospital were lower for equids with cardiac arrhythmias versus those without arrhythmias and decreased with increasing Hct and serum glucose concentrations. Odds of survival increased with increasing serum chloride concentration and duration of hospitalization.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equids with oleander toxicosis frequently had simultaneous gastrointestinal tract, cardiac, and renal problems. Oleander intoxication should be a differential diagnosis for equids with colic in geographic areas where oleander is found, especially when azotemia or cardiac arrhythmias are detected concurrently.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate agreement of 3 models of portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs; 2 designed for use with human samples and 1 designed for veterinary use) with a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—52 ferrets.

Procedures—Samples were analyzed with 4 PBGMs (whole blood) and a laboratory analyzer (plasma). Two PBGMs of the model designed for veterinary use were tested; each was set to a code corresponding to canine or feline sample analysis throughout the study. Agreement and bias between measurements obtained with the PBGMs and the laboratory analyzer were assessed with Bland-Altman plots. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations with venipuncture site by comparison of central (jugular) and peripheral (lateral saphenous or cephalic) venous blood samples.

Results—Plasma glucose concentrations measured with the laboratory analyzer ranged from 41 to 160 mg/dL. Results from the PBGM for veterinary use coded to test a canine blood sample had the greatest agreement with the laboratory analyzer (mean bias, 1.9 mg/dL); all other PBGMs significantly underestimated blood glucose concentrations. A PBGM designed for use with human samples had the least agreement with the laboratory analyzer (mean bias, −34.0 mg/dL). Blood glucose concentration was not significantly different between central and peripheral venous blood samples for any analyzer used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant underestimation of blood glucose concentrations as detected for 3 of the 4 PBGMs used in the study could have a substantial impact on clinical decision making. Verification of blood glucose concentrations in ferrets with a laboratory analyzer is highly recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with survival in dogs with nontonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) that were and were not treated with curative-intent surgery.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—31 dogs with OSCC.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs with OSCC that were not treated, or were treated with curative-intent surgery only between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. For each dog, data regarding signalment, clinical stage, treatment, tumor recurrence, and survival time were obtained from the medical record, and archived biopsy specimens were evaluated to identify the histologic subtype of the tumor and extent of tumor-associated inflammation (TAI), perineural invasion (PNI), and lymphovascular invasion (LVI).

Results—Risk of death for the 21 dogs with OSCC that were surgically treated was decreased 91.4% (hazard ratio, 0.086; 95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.150), compared with that for the 10 dogs with OSCC that were not treated. The 1-year survival rate was 93.5% and 0% for dogs that were and were not surgically treated, respectively. Risk of death increased significantly with increasing TAI and increasing risk score (combination of TAI, PNI, and LVI). Tumor location, clinical stage, and histologic subtype were not associated with survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the prognosis for dogs with OSCC was excellent following surgical excision of the tumor. Risk of death increased with increasing TAI, and combining TAI, PNI, and LVI into a single risk score may be a useful prognostic indicator for dogs with OSCC.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the distribution and clinical outcome of ocular lesions in snakes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—67 snakes with ocular lesions.

Procedures—Signalment, lesion duration, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome were recorded for all snakes with ocular lesions that were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 to 2010.

Results—71 ocular lesions were detected in 67 of 508 (13%) snakes examined. Affected snakes were of the families Boidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, and Viperidae. The distribution of ocular lesions did not vary by taxonomic family, age, or sex; however, snakes from the genus Epicrates with ocular lesions were overrepresented in the population. The most commonly diagnosed ocular lesions were retained spectacle (n = 41), pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess (13), trauma (8), and cataracts (4). Pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess developed more frequently in Colubridae than in non-Colubridae snakes. Of the 16 snakes with retained spectacles for which data were available, the lesion recurred once in 4 snakes and multiple times in 5 snakes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that retained spectacle was the most common ocular lesion diagnosed in snakes. Compared with other snakes with ocular lesions, snakes of the genus Epicrates had a higher than expected frequency of ocular lesions in general and snakes of the family Colubridae had a higher than expected frequency of pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors for pet evacuation failure during a flood.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—203 pet-owning households in a flooded region.

Procedures—Persons under evacuation notice because of a flood were interviewed by use of a random telephone survey.

Results—102 households evacuated with their pets, whereas 101 households evacuated without their pets. Low pet attachment and commitment scores were significantly associated with a greater chance of pet evacuation failure. Risk of pet evacuation failure and lower attachment and commitment scores were also associated with pet management practices prior to the disaster, such as dogs being kept outdoors most of the time or owners not having carriers for their cats. More than 90% of owners made housing arrangements for their pets without assistance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Predictors of pet evacuation failure are usually present before a disaster strikes and are potentially modifiable. Mitigation of pet evacuation failure should focus on activities that reinforce responsible pet ownership and strengthen the human-animal bond, including socializing dogs, attending dog behavior training classes, transporting cats in nondisaster times, and seeking regular preventive veterinary care. Most pet owners are self-reliant in disasters, and this behavior should be encouraged. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1905–1910)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association