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Abstract

Objectives—To assess the diagnostic yield of a routine fecal panel and determine whether Clostridium perfringens or C difficile toxin production is associated with acute hemorrhagic diarrheal syndrome (AHDS) in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—260 dogs with diarrhea and 177 dogs with normal feces.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for results of culture for C difficile, Campylobacter spp, and Salmonella spp; C perfringens fecal enterotoxin (CPE) assay via ELISA or reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) assay; fecal endospore enumeration; C difficile toxin A assay; and parasite evaluation.

Results—Prevalence of CPE in dogs with diarrhea was 22/154 (14.3%) via ELISA and 47/104 (45.2%) via RPLA assay, versus 9/74 (12%) via ELISA and 26/103 (25%) via RPLA assay in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile was 47/260 (18%) in dogs with diarrhea and 41/74 (55%) in control dogs. Prevalence of C difficile toxin A was 26/254 (10.2%) in dogs with diarrhea and 0/74 in control dogs. Diagnosis of AHDS was made in 27 dogs; 8 had positive results for CPE, 7 had positive results for toxin A, and 1 had positive results for both toxins. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 13 of 260 (5%) dogs with diarrhea and 21 of 74 (28.4%) control dogs. Salmonella spp were isolated from 3 (1.2%) dogs with diarrhea.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diagnostic value of a fecal panel in dogs with diarrhea appears to be low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:52–59)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of infections developing postoperatively, document the contribution of infection to increased risk of death, and identify risk factors associated with the development of infectious complications in cats after renal transplantation.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—169 cats that received renal allograft transplants.

Procedures—Medical records of cats receiving renal transplants at the University of California from January 1987 through December 2003 were reviewed.

Results—47 infections developed in 43 of 169 cats. Bacterial infections were most common (25/47 cats), followed by viral (13/47), fungal (6/47), and protozoal (3/47) infections. The median duration from transplant surgery to development of infection was 2.5 months. Infection was the second most common cause of death after acute rejection of the transplant, accounting for 14% of deaths overall. Cats with concurrent diabetes mellitus had a significantly increased risk of developing an infection after renal transplantation. Sex, increasing age, concurrent neoplasia, and previous treatment for transplant rejection were not associated with development of infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection was a common complication and an important cause of death or euthanasia in cats after renal transplantation. Development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation significantly increased the risk of infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:948–953)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures (TTAF) in dogs with implants left in situ past skeletal maturity and to compare clinical outcomes with published outcomes in dogs whose implants were removed 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively.

ANIMALS

47 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

In this retrospective study, 47 dogs had surgery to correct a TTAF before 10 months of age and had the implants left in situ past skeletal maturity. Of these, 42 were followed for a median of 36 months postoperatively. Short- and long-term complications were recorded and compared with historically published data in which the implants were removed within 6 weeks of surgery.

RESULTS

14% (6/42) of our population experienced minor long-term complications (stiffness and lameness), 6% (3/47) experienced major short-term complications (repair failure), and 14% (6/24) experienced major long-term complications (implant removal). There was no difference in long-term outcomes when compared with results of historical reports in which implants were removed 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Client satisfaction was high, with 93% (38/41) grading outcomes as excellent and 95% (39/41) stating they would have surgery performed again in retrospect.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Immature dogs with surgically repaired TTAFs have favorable long-term outcomes when the implants were left in situ past skeletal maturity. Dogs with TTAF repairs may not need implant removal unless it becomes clinically necessary. Avoiding a second procedure will decrease patient morbidity, recovery time, and cost.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats.

PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized.

RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities.

CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical features and outcome of cats treated for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with attenuation (extravascular or intravascular) versus medical treatment only.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—28 client-owned cats with congenital PDA.

Procedures—Medical records for cats with PDA diagnosed by means of echocardiography were reviewed. Data retrieved included signalment; history; clinical signs; results of physical examination, ECG, echocardiography, and thoracic radiography; response to medical management if attempted; type of attenuation procedure if attempted (surgical or intravascular); procedural details; intraoperative and postoperative (≤ 2 weeks) complications; and long-term (> 2 weeks) complications. Follow-up was obtained from medical records and via telephone interviews.

Results—All 28 cats were referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur, but 17 of 26 (65%) for which initial clinical signs were available did not have overt signs at initial evaluation. Multiple congenital cardiac defects were identified in 6 of 23 (26%) cats. Seventeen of 26 (65%) cats were documented as treated with 1 or more vascular attenuation procedures; vascular attenuation was not attempted in 11 cats receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or loop diuretic (n = 2) or no medical treatment (9). Surgical ligation was successful in 11 of 15 cats, and coil embolization was successful in 2 cats. Procedural or postoperative complications included death (n = 2), left-sided laryngeal paralysis (2), voice change (1), fever (1), hemorrhage (4), and chylothorax (1). Long-term follow-up was available for 16 of 28 (57%) cats. Three of 4 cats that did not undergo surgical attenuation died of cardiac-related disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that PDA occurs rarely in cats, and clinical signs and diagnostic findings were consistent with those previously reported for dogs. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment did not result in a significant difference in life expectancy in this small cohort. Evaluation of laryngeal function after surgical ligation is recommended. Further study of the outcome associated with various treatment options in a larger population of patients is recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate accuracy of 6 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) by comparing results of these meters with results obtained with a reference chemistry analyzer.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—49 dogs (158 blood samples).

Procedures—Venous blood samples were tested with the 6 PBGMs, and results were compared with results of a commercially available analyzer that used a reference method based on the hexokinase reaction.

Results—Plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the reference analyzer ranged from 41 to 639 mg/dL. There were significant correlations between blood glucose concentrations obtained with the 6 PBGMs and plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the reference analyzer (r ≥ 0.96). However, for all 6 PBGMs, results differed from results for the reference analyzer, with the difference increasing as plasma glucose concentration increased. Significant differences in bias were found among meters. For 142 samples classified as hypoglycemic, euglycemic, or hyperglycemic on the basis of results of the reference analyzer, the percentage of samples that were misclassified on the basis of results of the PBGMs ranged from 2.1% to 38.7%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that there were substantial differences in the accuracy of currently available PBGMs when used to determine blood glucose concentration in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the radiographic outcome of root canal treatment (RCT) in dogs and compare outcomes with those reported for a previous study performed at the same institution in 2002.

ANIMALS

204 dogs representing 281 teeth that underwent RCT.

PROCEDURES

The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify dogs that underwent RCT between 2001 and 2018. Only dogs that had undergone at least 1 radiographic recheck appointment a minimum of 50 days after RCT were included in the study. Dental radiographs were reviewed. Treatment was considered successful if the periapical periodontal ligament space was within reference limits and preexisting external inflammatory root resorption (EIRR), if present, had stabilized. Treatment was considered to show no evidence of failure (NEF) if preoperative EIRR had stabilized and any preoperative periapical lucency (PAL) remained the same or had decreased in size but had not completely resolved. Treatment was considered to have failed if EIRR or a PAL developed after RCT, if a preoperative PAL increased in size, or if preexisting EIRR progressed.

RESULTS

Follow-up time ranged from 52 to 3,245 days (mean, 437 days). RCT was classified as successful for 199 (71%) teeth, NEF for 71 (25%) teeth, and failed for 11 (4%) teeth.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results showed that almost 2 decades after RCT outcome in dogs was first evaluated, during which time numerous advances in dental materials and techniques had been made, the success rate of RCT was virtually unchanged.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinicopathologic features of the most common odontogenic tumors and focal fibrous hyperplasia (FFH) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—152 dogs evaluated for oral tumors of possible odontogenic origin at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis between 1995 and 2005.

Procedures—Information was collected from records, including dog breed, age, reproductive status, and location of lesion in the oral cavity. Histologic slides pertaining to each dog were reviewed by 3 investigators. Data regarding clinicopathologic features of the 3 most common lesions (canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma [CAA], peripheral odontogenic fibroma [POF], and FFH) were summarized.

Results—152 dogs with odontogenic tumors or FFH were identified. Sixty-eight (45%) dogs had CAA, 47 (31 %) had POF, 24 (16%) had FFH, and 13 (9%) had other odontogenic tumors. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma was present most commonly in the rostral aspect of the mandible, with POF and FFH more common in the rostral aspect of the maxilla. Males and females were equally represented among dogs with CAA and FFH. Castrated males were overrepresented among dogs with POF. Golden Retrievers, Akitas, Cocker Spaniels, and Shetland Sheepdogs were overrepresented among dogs with CAA. No breed predisposition was detected for FFH or POF. Dogs with FFH had a greater mean age at initial evaluation than did dogs with CAA or POF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CAA, POF, and FFH have distinct clinical patterns that may help clinicians and pathologists identify such lesions more readily.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts and determine whether histologic findings were associated with clinical features.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to obtain clinical data, including breed, age, sex, and lesion location. Microscopic sections and results of diagnostic imaging were reviewed.

Results—Odontogenic cysts were identified in 41 dogs between 1995 and 2010. There were 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 1 with a radicular cyst, 1 with a lateral periodontal cyst, and 1 with a gingival inclusion cyst. In addition, 9 dogs with odontogenic cysts that had clinical and histologic features suggestive of, but not diagnostic for, odontogenic keratocysts seen in people were identified. In all 9 dogs, these cysts were located in the maxilla and surrounded the roots of normally erupted teeth. Of the 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 23 had a single cyst, 5 had 2 cysts, and 1 had 3 cysts. Six cysts were associated with an unerupted canine tooth, and 30 were associated with an unerupted first premolar tooth (1 cyst was associated both with an unerupted canine tooth and with an unerupted first premolar tooth). Dentigerous cysts were identified in a variety of breeds, but several brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population during the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a variety of odontogenic cysts can occur in dogs. In addition, cysts that resembled odontogenic keratocysts reported in people were identified. We propose the term canine odontogenic parakeratinized cyst for this condition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association