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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether ultrasonographic features in dogs with protein-losing nephropathy (PLN) were associated with renal biopsy findings and compare corticomedullary ratios between dogs with PLN versus non-renal disease.

ANIMALS

71 dogs with PLN and 33 dogs without renal disease.

PROCEDURES

Medical records and archived ultrasonographic images for dogs with PLN that underwent renal biopsy between 2008 and 2018 were reviewed. Corticomedullary ratios were measured.

RESULTS

In dogs with PLN, median serum creatinine and BUN concentrations and urine-protein-to-creatinine-ratio prior to renal biopsy were 3.4 mg/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 1.2 to 5.3 mg/dL), 80 mg/dL (IQR, 28 to 105 mg/dL), and 11.4 (IQR, 6.4 to 18.3), respectively. Histologic abnormalities within the tubulointerstitial space were associated with cortical echogenicity. Gastric wall thickness > 5 mm was associated with a histologic diagnosis of acute glomerular disease. Dogs with immune complex–mediated glomerular disease were more likely to have abnormal gastric mural architecture. Other ultrasonographic features of the kidneys, liver, and stomach and the presence of ascites did not help to differentiate immune complex–mediated from non-immune complex–mediated glomerular disease, acute from chronic disease, or amyloid from non-amyloid disease or distinguish whether tubulointerstitial disease was present or absent. Median left corticomedullary ratio for 66 dogs with PLN (1.2) was significantly higher than that for the 33 dogs without renal disease (1.0).

Clinical Relevance

Ultrasonographic features were poorly associated with specific pathological disorders in dogs with PLN. In this study, the corticomedullary ratio was higher in dogs with PLN, indicating the presence of cortical thickening, but the clinical relevance is unknown.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the bacteriome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.

ANIMALS

Dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.

PROCEDURES

The maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS

714 bacterial species from 177 families were identified. The 3 most frequently found bacterial species were Actinomyces sp (48/51 samples), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (47/51 samples), and a Campylobacter sp (48/51 samples). The most abundant species were P cangingivalis, Porphyromonas gulae, and an undefined Porphyromonas sp. Porphyromonas cangingivalis and Campylobacter sp were part of the core microbiome shared among the 4 groups, and P gulae, which was significantly enriched in dogs with severe periodontal disease, was part of the core microbiome shared between all groups except dogs without periodontal disease. Christensenellaceae sp, Bacteroidales sp, Family XIII sp, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Peptostreptococcus canis, and Tannerella sp formed a unique core microbiome in dogs with severe periodontal disease.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlighted that in dogs, potential pathogens can be common members of the oral cavity bacteriome in the absence of disease, and changes in the relative abundance of certain members of the bacteriome can be associated with severity of periodontal disease. Future studies may aim to determine whether these changes are the cause or result of periodontal disease or the host immune response.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

6-month-old and 7-month-old spayed female domestic shorthair cats were referred because of complications associated with inadvertent bilateral ureteral ligation and transection during ovariohysterectomy.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Both cats had a 1- to 2-day history of lethargy, inappetence, and vomiting. Initial exam findings included lethargy, signs of abdominal pain, anuria, and dehydration. Clinicopathologic testing revealed azotemia and hyperkalemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed peritoneal effusion and bilateral pyelectasia in both cats and retroperitoneal effusion in one. Fluid analysis in both cats supported a diagnosis of uroabdomen.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Exploratory celiotomy was performed in both cats, and bilateral ureteral ligation and transection was confirmed. Bilateral renal descensus and ureteroneocystostomy with an intravesicular mucosal apposition technique was successfully performed in both cats. Clinicopathologic evaluation performed 1 day after surgery in one cat and 5 days after surgery in the other revealed complete resolution of azotemia. Ultrasonographic examination of the urogenital tract performed approximately 4 months after surgery in the first cat and 1 month after surgery in the second cat revealed complete resolution of renal pelvic dilation bilaterally.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Bilateral intravesicular ureteroneocystostomy in conjunction with bilateral renal descensus was used successfully to treat bilateral ureteral transection that occurred in 2 cats during routine ovariohysterectomy. Limited treatment options currently exist for this serious complication, and euthanasia is often considered. This technique, which relies on the use of the natural surrounding tissues for successful treatment, can offer a potential treatment option to correct this uncommon but devastating complication.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the feasibility of buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for repairing complete urethral rupture in cats.

ANIMALS

15 male domestic shorthair cats with traumatic complete urethral rupture.

PROCEDURES

In each cat, a section of buccal mucosa was harvested, sutured, and formed into a tubule by use of an 8F indwelling catheter as support. This tubular graft was connected to both ruptured ends of the urethra to renew the urinary passage. The catheter was left in place until the absence of leakage was confirmed by positive contrast retrograde urethrography. After spontaneous urination was confirmed, cats were discharged from the hospital. Six months later, urethrography was repeated and owners were asked to score their cats’ urinary function and quality of life.

RESULTS

13 cats recovered well following surgery, with no complications in the oral cavity or surgical site and no signs of difficulty or discomfort when urinating. Urethrography 2 weeks and 6 months after surgery revealed no stricture or leakage in the abdominal cavity. The 2 remaining cats developed a urethral stricture and underwent second surgery with a successful outcome. At the 6-month follow-up, 14 cats had only mild urinary signs, and 1 cat had incontinency. Owners indicated they were delighted (n = 14) or pleased (1) with their cats’ quality of life.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Buccal mucosa was found to be a good source of graft tissue for performance of urethroplasty in male cats, yielding satisfactory outcomes with few postoperative complications. The described technique may be suitable for severe and complicated cases of urethral rupture in male cats.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe signalment, clinical signs, serologic test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis (COM) and to compare those findings with findings for dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).

ANIMALS

14 dogs with COM and 16 dogs with OSA.

PROCEDURES

Data were retrospectively gathered from electronic medical records.

RESULTS

Dogs with COM were younger and weighed less than dogs with OSA. Six dogs with COM had appendicular lesions, 5 had axial lesions, and 3 had both appendicular and axial lesions; 9 had monostotic disease, and 5 had polyostotic disease. Axial lesions and nonadjacent polyostotic disease were more common in dogs with COM than in dogs with OSA, but radiographic appearance was not different between the 2 groups. Median IgG titer at diagnosis of COM was 1:48 and was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Percentage of dogs with COM that had clinical signs was significantly decreased after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. One year after initiation of treatment, 9 of 9 dogs were still receiving fluconazole and 8 of 9 dogs had positive results for serum IgG titer testing.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs with COM typically had a rapid improvement in clinical signs after initiating treatment with fluconazole but required long-term antifungal treatment. Dogs with COM differed from dogs with OSA, but radiographic features had a great degree of overlap between groups, confounding the ability to make a diagnosis on the basis of diagnostic imaging alone.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare image quality and acquisition time of corneal and retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) under 3 different sedation-anesthesia conditions in horses.

ANIMALS

6 middle-aged geldings free of ocular disease.

PROCEDURES

1 randomly selected eye of each horse was evaluated via SD-OCT under the following 3 conditions: standing sedation without retrobulbar anesthetic block (RB), standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia with RB. Five regions of interest were evaluated in the cornea (axial and 12, 3, 6, and 9 o’clock positions) and fundus (optic nerve head). Three diagnostic scans of predetermined quality were obtained per anatomical region. Image acquisition times and total scans per site were recorded. Corneal and retinal SD-OCT image quality was graded on a subjective scale from 0 (nondiagnostic) to 4 (excellent).

RESULTS

Mean values for the standing sedation without RB, standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia conditions were 24, 23, and 17, respectively, for total cornea scan attempts; 23, 19, and 19 for total retina-scan attempts; 14.6, 13.2, and 9.2 minutes for total cornea scan time; 19.1, 9.2, and 13.0 for total retina scan time; 2.0, 2.3, and 2.5 for cornea grade; and 2.7, 2.9, and 2.5 for retina grade.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The RB facilitated globe akinesia and improved the percentage of scans in frame and region of interest accuracy for retinal imaging via OCT in horses. Retrobulbar blocks improved clinical image acquisition while minimizing motion artifact.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare resident and intern salaries with current regional living wages as a quantitative estimate of financial strain.

SAMPLE

152 residency programs and 141 internship programs listed with the Veterinary Internship and Residency Matching Program for the 2021–2022 training year.

PROCEDURES

Data were collected for program annual salary and location. Regional living wage for each location was determined with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Living Wage Calculator, and annual salary was compared with living wage to estimate income surplus before and after taxes. Results for programs in academia and private practice were compared. Spearman correlation was used to determine whether program annual salary was significantly associated with regional living wage.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD income surplus before taxes was $7,786 ± 9,426 for clinical residency programs, $16,672 ± 5,105 for laboratory animal programs, and $5,829 ± 8,119 for internships. Academic residencies and internships offered salaries significantly lower than those offered in private practice, and income surpluses before and after taxes were significantly lower for academic programs than for private practice programs. There were weak and moderate, respectively, correlations between program annual salary and regional living wage for residency (r = 0.369) and internship (r = 0.570) programs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Postgraduate training prolongs financial instability, and annual salaries generally do not meet the minimum income standard of a living wage. Financial stress has implications for mental health and diversity, and these findings invite deeper consideration of current remuneration practices for veterinary residents and interns.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess drug-drug interactions between cannabidiol (CBD) and phenobarbital (PB) when simultaneously administered to healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

9 healthy, purpose bred Beagles.

PROCEDURES

A 3-phase prospective, randomized pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction study of CBD and PB was performed as follows: phase 1, CBD PK determination and evaluation of CBD tolerability by 3 single-dose CBD (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg) protocols followed by 2-week CBD dosing; phase 2, a single-dose, 3-way, crossover PK study of CBD (10 mg/kg), PB (4 mg/kg), or CBD (10 mg/kg) administration plus PB (4 mg/kg); and phase 3, evaluation of chronic PB (4 mg/kg, q 30 d) administration followed by single-dose CBD (10 mg/kg) PK study.

RESULTS

Although there were variations in CBD PK variables in dogs receiving CBD alone or in conjunction with PB, significance differences in CBD PK variables were not found. No significant difference was observed in PB PK variables of dogs receiving PB alone or with CBD. During chronic CBD administration, mild gastrointestinal signs were observed in 5 dogs. At daily CBD doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg/d, hypoxia was observed in 5 dogs and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities (range, 301 to 978 U/L) was observed in 4 dogs. A significant increase in ALP activity was observed with chronic administration of CBD during phase 1 between day 0 and day 14.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

No significant PK interactions were found between CBD and PB. Dose escalation of CBD or adjustment of PB in dogs is not recommended on the basis of findings of this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of housing environment on oral absorption of acetaminophen in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Acetaminophen (325 mg, PO; mean dose, 31.1 mg/kg) was administered in a crossover study design with dogs housed in their normal environment or in a cage in an unfamiliar environment. There was a 7-day washout period between phases. Blood samples were collected for 24 hours following acetaminophen administration, and plasma acetaminophen concentrations were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography.

RESULTS

A 2-compartment model with lag time was the best fit for both phases of the study. None of the primary or secondary pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly different between the 2 housing environments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that in dogs, housing environment (normal environment vs a cage in an unfamiliar environment) did not significantly affect oral absorption and, by extension, gastric emptying of acetaminophen.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical outcomes in cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

ANIMALS

14 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with SRS (17 Gy) between August 2013 and November 2019 at a single institution were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate overall survival time.

RESULTS

Acute adverse effects of SRS included somnolence (n = 2) and alopecia (1). Delayed adverse effects of SRS included unspecified neurologic complications (n = 1; 481 days), seizures (1; 1,541 days), and hypothyroidism (1; 64 days). Exogenous insulin requirements decreased in 10 of the 14 cats, with a median time to lowest insulin dose of 399 days (range, 42 to 879 days). Complete diabetic remission was achieved in 3 cats. The median overall survival time was 741 days (95% CI, 353 to 1,129 days). Six cats were still alive at the end of the study period, with a median follow-up time of 725 days. In 7 of the 8 cats that had died, death was presumptively attributed to acromegaly owing to continued insulin resistance, organ failure, or altered neurologic status.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The SRS protocol was well tolerated and associated with survival times similar to those reported previously. Most cats had decreased exogenous insulin requirements after SRS. Latency to an endocrine response was highly variable, emphasizing the need for careful ongoing diabetic monitoring of acromegalic cats after pituitary gland irradiation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research